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Dyes and Pigment (Indigo in the World and Indonesia) Biochemistry

Dyes and Pigment (Indigo in the World and Indonesia) Biochemistry

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Published by Sonianto kuddi
Dyes and pigments, Chemical structure and color
The history of indigo in Indonesia
Dyes and pigments, Chemical structure and color
The history of indigo in Indonesia

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Published by: Sonianto kuddi on Feb 19, 2009
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04/24/2012

 
Organic chemistry
By Sonianto Kuddi
40420060017 /1EMB1
UPH-Teachers
Dyes and pigments
Chemical structure and color The history of indigo in Indonesia
 
Introduction
Colorants are characterized by heir ability to absorb or emit light in the visible range(Zollinger, 2003, p. 1). Light of a given wavelength is perceived as the indicated color. The perception of color by the human eye does not solely depend on absorption wavelength, althoughit is crucial, but also on the shape of the bands involved. Man has used natural colorants longyears ago. Substances that impart color to a material are dyes and pigments. In term of chemicalstructure, colorants can be inorganic or organic compounds. Both groups can be subdivided intonatural and synthetic representatives. (Christie, 2001, p. 24).Colorants classified in to two separate ways, either according to their chemical structureor according to the method of application, they are dyes and pigments. Every color isrepresentative of light that is at a particular wavelength or frequency. For example, what weconsider as red is light that has approximately 780 - 620 nm wavelength (Christie, 2001, p. 24).When light interacts with molecules, the molecules absorb the energy from that particular light. This energy can do something to the molecule. For example, certain wavelengthscan make molecules vibrate, make the bonds rotate, or make the electrons within the molecule become more energetic. Certain molecules can only absorb certain energies. (Argonne NationalLaboratory, 2005).
Dyes and Pigments
Dyes are applied to various substrates from a liquid in which they are completely or atleast partly soluble. They must possess specific affinity to a given substrate, which might be atextile, paper, leather, hair, or other materials. Dyes may be natural or synthetic. Natural dyescome from animals, minerals, and plants. Plants of the species
 Indigofera, Polygonum, Lonchocarpus, Marsdenia, Strobilanthes, and Isatis
. (Parramon, 1989, p. 76).
2
 
Picture of 
 Indigofera
 plant:A dye must be colored, but it must also able to impart color to something else on areasonably permanent basis before it can be considered as a dye. Most dye contains considerableunsaturation, and some part of the dye is usually in the form of aromatic rings with nitrogenunsaturation of several types common to many dyes. Many correlations have been made betweenchemical structure and color. Color result from electronic transitions between molecular orbitals.A dye consists of a color production structure, the
chromogen
(electron acceptor), and a part to regulate the solubility and dying properties, the
auxochrome
(electron donor). Without both parts, the material is simply a colored body. The
chromogen
is an aromatic body containinga color called
chromophore
. Some molecules lose their colors when the
chromophore
group aresaturated. Dyes are almost invariably applied to the textile materials from an aqueous medium,so that they are generally required to dissolve in water. (Parramon, 1989, p. 76).
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