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lecture-17

lecture-17

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Published by: minhhai2209 on Feb 19, 2009
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05/10/2014

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Lecture 17: Usability
6.170 Lab in Software Engineering
October 21, 2002
A Few ExamplesSource: Interface Hall of Shame
More Examples
Source: Interface Hall of Shame
User I nterface Matters
nUI strongly affects perception of software
nCost s
nUI accounts for 50% of design time,
implementation, maintenance, and code size
nUsers\u2019 time isn\u2019t getting cheaper
nDesign it right now, or pay for it later
nDisasters
nTherac-25
nAegis radar system in USS Vincennes
UI s are Hard to Design
nYou are not the user
n\u201cKnow thy user\u201d
nThe user is always right
nConsistent errors are the system\u2019s fault
n\u2026but the user is not always right
nUsers aren\u2019t designers
nOnline help doesn\u2019t
nUser testing is costly
Usability is Multidimensional

nLearnability: easy to learn?
nEfficiency: fast to use?
nMemorability: easy to remember what

you learned?
nErrors: few and recoverable?
nSat isfact ion: enjoyable to use?
2
Outline
nThe human machine (a brief look)
nPerception, motor, memory, color
nUsability engineering techniques

nIterative design
nLow-fidelity prototypes
nHeuristics

nUser testing
Model Human Processor
Long-term Memory
Working Memory
Visual Image
Store
Auditory Image
Store
Perceptual
Processor
Motor
Processor
Cognitive
Processor
Card, Moran, Newell (1983)
Eyes
Ears
Muscles
Properties of
Model Human Processor
nProcessors have cycle time

nPerceptual: Tp ~ 100ms
nMotor: Tm ~ 70ms
nCognitive: Tc ~ 70ms

nMemories have size, decay time,
encoding
Perception
nPerceptual fusion
nTwo stimuli within the same perceptual
processor cycle (Tp ~ 100ms) seem fused
nMovie frame rate
n10 frames per sec is enough for average user
nResponses within Tp feel instantaneous
nCausality strongly influenced by fusion
Motor Skills
nMoving your hand to a target involves a
sequence of corrections
nCycle time = Tp + Tc + Tm ~ 240 ms
nOne cycle covers distance D with erroreD
nFitts\u2019s Law
nTime T to move your hand to a target of
size S at distance D away is:
nT = a + b log (D/ S)
nDepends only on relative precision required
Memory
nWorking memory
nSmall capacity: 7\u00b1 2 \u201cchunks\u201d
nB, M, W, R, C, A, A, O, L, I , B, M
nBMW RCA AOL I BM
nFast access (~ 70 ms) and fast decay (a
few seconds, depends on # of chunks)
nLong-term memory
nHuge capacity, slower access time (~ 100
ms), little decay

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