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Published by vachauhan27
MB0050 Research Methodology
MB0050 Research Methodology

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Published by: vachauhan27 on Feb 21, 2013
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Find all assignment at smumbasolutions.co.nf MB0050 Research MethodologyQuestion 1. (a) Explain the types of research.Answer.
Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods.According to the intent, research may be classified as:
1 Pure Research
It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it inpractice
2 Applied Research
It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policydecision.
3 Exploratory Research
It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliarproblem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge.
4 Descriptive Study
It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplesttype of research.
5 Diagnostic Study
It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus.
6 Evaluation Studies
It is a type of applied research.
7 Action Research
It is a type of evaluation study.
According to the methods of study, research may be classified as:1. Experimental Research
: It is designed to asses the effects of particularvariables on a phenomenon by keeping the other variables constant orcontrolled.2
. Analytical Study:
It is a system of procedures and techniques of analysisapplied to quantitative data.
3. Historical Research
: It is a study of past records and other informationsources with a view to reconstructing the origin and development of aninstitution
4. Survey
: It is a fact-finding study. It is a method of research involvingcollection of data directly from a population or a sample thereof at particulartime.1
(b) What is the significance of research in social and business sciences?
Answer:-According to a famous Hudson Maxim, “All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt isoften better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads toinvention”. It brings out the significance of research, increased amounts of whichmakes progress possible. Research encourages scientific and inductive thinking,besides promoting the development of logical habits of thinking andorganization. Research also facilitates the decision making of policy-makers,although in itself it is not a part of research. In the process, research also helpsin the proper allocation of a country’s scare resources. Collection of statisticalinformation though not a routine task, involves various research problems. Therefore, large staff of research technicians or experts is engaged by thegovernment these days to undertake this work. Thus, research as a tool of government economic policy formulation involves three distinct stages of operation which are as follows:* Investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts* Diagnoses of events that are taking place and the analysis of the forcesunderlying them; and* The prognosis.Research also assumes a significant role in solving various operational andplanning problems associated with business and industry. In several ways,operations research, market research, and motivational research are vital andtheir results assist in taking business decisions.2
Q2. What is meant by validity? How does it differ from reliability andwhat are its types?
Answer:-Validity This means that a measurement scale should measure what it issupposed to measure.Validity refers to how effective an instrument is in measuring a property which itintends to measure. There are three types of validity content validity,predictive validity and construct validity. Content validity may be of two types –face validity and sampling validity.Face validity is determined by a subjective evaluation of a measuring scale.Sampling validity refers to the extent to which the measuring instrument’scontent is representative of the content universe of the characteristic beingmeasured. The main limitation of content validity is that it is determined in asubjective manner, rather than through a statistical method.As reliability of a measuring instrument refers to its ability to provide consistentand accurate results with repeated measurements. Reliability and validity areclosely associated. An instrument that is valid is also reliable, but not vice versa.Validity may be classified into different types, as described below.1. Content validity: This type of validity may be of two types –a) Face validity and b) Sampling validity. Face validity is determined through asubjective evaluation of a measuring scale. For example, a researcher maydevelop a scale to measure consumer attitudes towards a brand and pre-test thescale among a few experts. If the experts are satisfied with the scale, theresearcher may conclude that the scale has face validity. However, the limitationof this type of validity is that it is determined by opinions, rather than through astatistical method. Sampling validity refers to how representative the content of the measuring instrument is. In other words, the measuring instrument’scontent must be representative of the content universe of the characteristicbeing measured.2. Predictive validity: This type of validity refers to the extent to which onebehavior can be predicted based on another, based on the association betweenthe results yielded by the measuring instrument and the eventual outcome.3

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