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Study and Implementation of a Single-PhaseIsolated AC-DC Converter 
Lung-Sheng Yang Chia-Ching Lin Ming-Rong LeeDepartment of Electrical Engineering, Far East University, Tainan City, Taiwan, R.O.C.E-mail: yanglungsheng@yahoo.com.tw
 Abstract 
– A single-phase isolated AC-DC converter is presented inthis paper. The front semi-stage, which is a modified buck-boostconverter, is used for power factor correction and is operated indiscontinuous conduction mode (DCM) to achieve high powerfactor and low total harmonic distortion of input current. The rearsemi-stage, which is a forward converter, is operated in DCM forstep-down voltage conversion. The proposed converter is suitablefor universal input voltage (90~264 V
rms
) and wide output-powerrange. This converter has the merits of low voltage stress on theDC-link capacitor and electrical isolation. Also, the operatingprinciple and steady-state analysis is discussed. Finally, aprototype circuit is implemented to verify the feasibility of theproposed converter. 
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
 Traditionally, the diode bridge rectifier is used for AC-DC power conversion. It possesses the advantage of simplestructure and low cost. However, this rectifier has somedrawbacks, such as pulsating input current, high total harmonicdistortion of input current (THD
i
), and low power factor. Inorder to improve these problems, many power factor correctioncircuits are presented. The two-stage converters can achievehigh power factor, low voltage stress on the DC-link capacitor,and regulated output voltage. However, it has the disadvantagesof control complexity and high cost. The AC-DC buck converters are utilized for power factor correction [1], [2]. Nevertheless, the power factor is low and the THD
i
is rather high. Some single-stage PFC converters, including CUK type,SEPIC type, boost-forward type, boost-flyback type, aredeveloped [3]-[7]. Since the DC-link voltage varies with thevariation of the input voltage and the load, the DC-link capacitor must bear high voltage stress for universal inputvoltage (90~264 V
rms
). In order to reduce high voltage stress onthe DC-link capacitor, some topologies are presented [8]-[9].However, it causes poor THD
i
. A buck-boost converter integrated with a flyback converter is researched to achievehigh power factor and low THD
i
[10]. However, it is notsuitable for universal input voltage and wide output-power range. This paper researches a single-phase isolated AC-DCconverter, which integrates a modified AC-DC buck-boostconverter with a DC-DC forward converter. The proposedconverter has the merits, such as high power factor, low THD
i
,low DC-link voltage.II.
 
O
PERATING
P
RINCIPLE OF THE
P
ROPOSED
C
ONVERTER 
 Fig. 1 shows the proposed converter, which integrates amodified AC-DC converter in the front semi-stage with a DC-DC forward converter in the rear semi-stage. The two semi-stage are both operated in discontinuous conduction mode(DCM) with a fixed duty ratio by using a simple pulse-widthmodulation controller. Switches, S
1
and S
2
, are triggered usingsame control signal. A coupled inductor with same windingturns in the primary and secondary sides is employed in the proposed converter. The primary and secondary windings of thecoupled inductor are charged in series from the line sourceduring the switch-on period and are discharged in parallelduring the switch-off period. The discharged time will beshortened. Namely, the duty ratio can be extended. Thus, thefront semi-stage of the proposed converter can be operated withlarger duty-ratio range than the conventional buck-boostconverter with DCM operation. Therefore, the proposedconverter can be applied for universal input voltage and wideoutput-power range. Fig. 2 shows some typical waveforms in ahalf line source period. Due to the symmetrical characteristicsof the single-phase system, the following operating principle isanalyzed for 0 <
ω
<
π 
, where
ω
is the line angular frequency.(I)
 
Mode 1: The current-flow path is shown in Fig. 3(a). Whenthe switches, S
1
and S
2
, are turned on during time interval[
hT 
 s
,
h
1
], the primary and secondary windings of thecoupled inductor are charged by series from line source andthe energy stored in the DC-link capacitor 
1
is dischargedto output inductor 
 L
o
, output capacitor 
o
, and the load viathe transformer T
.(II)
 
Mode 2: The current-flow path is shown in Fig. 3(b). Whilethe switches, S
1
and S
2
, are turned off during time interval[
h
1
,
h
2
], the primary and secondary windings of the coupledinductor release their energies by parallel to the DC-link capacitor 
1
and the energy stored in output inductor 
 L
o
isreleased to output capacitor 
o
and the load.(III)
 
Mode 3: The current-flow path is shown in Fig. 3(c).While the switches, S
1
and S
2
, are still turned off duringtime interval [
h
2
,
h
3
]. The coupled-inductor currents,
i
 L
1
 and
i
 L
2
, are equal to zero at
=
h
2
. The energy stored in
978-1-4673-0158-9/12/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE 527
 
output inductor 
 L
o
is still transferred to output capacitor 
o
 and the load.(IV) Mode 4: The current-flow path is shown in Fig. 3(d).While the switches, S
1
and S
2
, are still turned off duringtime interval [
h
3
, (
h
+1)
 s
], the energy stored in outputinductor 
 L
o
is
 
released to empty at
=
h
3
. The load issupplied from output capacitor 
o
.
Fig. 1 Circuit configuration of the proposed converter.
i
 L
1
i
 L
2
on
i
 s
'
e
 s
0
hT 
 s
h
1
h
2
(
h
+1)
 s
1,
h
 s
1,
h
 s
i
c
1
00002
i
 L
1
 p,h
i
 L
1
 p,h
(=
i
 L
2
 p,h
)
i
 L
1
 p,h
(=
i
 L
2
 p,h
)
i
 L
o
i
co
00
v
 gs
1
v
 gs
2
-
i
 Lop,h
/
ni
 Lop,h
i
 Lop,h
-
i
o
2,
h
h
3
 s
2,
h
 
Fig. 2 Some typical waveforms of the proposed converter for 0 <
ω
<
π 
.(a) Mode 1(b) Mode 2(c) Mode 3(d) Mode 4Fig. 3 Current-flow path of the proposed converter for 0 <
ω
<
π 
.
 
528
 
III.
 
S
TEADY
-
STATE
A
 NALYSIS OF THE
P
ROPOSED
C
ONVERTER 
 Due to the symmetrical characteristics of the single-phasesystem, the following analysis is discussed for 0 <
 
ω
<
 
π 
. For simplicity, the effect of the input filter is neglected. The linevoltage is given as()()2sinsin,
 s s rms m
e t v t V t V
ω ω  
= = =
(1)where
rms
and
m
are the root-mean-square value and theamplitude of the line voltage. Since the switching frequency
 f 
 s
 (
 f 
 s
= 1/
 s
) is much larger than the line frequency
 f 
1
, the linevoltage can be considered as a piecewise constant during eachswitching period. Assuming
m
is the switching number withinthe time interval [0,
π 
/
ω
], thus
m
is equal to
 f 
 s
/2
 f 
1
. Thefollowing analysis is considered during the switching period[
hT 
 s
, (
h
+1)
 s
], where
h
= 0, 1, …..,
m
-1. Since the primary and secondary winding turns of thecoupled inductor is same, the inductance of the coupledinductor in the primary and secondary sides are expressed as
12
.
 L L L
= =
(2)Thus, the mutual inductance
 M 
of the coupled inductor is given by
12
,
k LL kL
= =
 (3)where
is the coupling coefficient of the coupled inductor.The voltages across the primary and secondary windings of thecoupled inductor are as follows:
121211
,
 L L L L L
di di di div L M L kLdt dt dt d
= + = +
(4)
121222
.
 L L L L L
di di di div M L kL Ldt dt dt d
= + = +
(5)When the switches, S
1
and S
2
, are turned on, the followingequations are obtained as
121
, ,
 L L s h
i i hT t
=
(6)
121
(), ,
 L L s h s h
v v e t hT t
+ =
 
(7)
11
(), ,
c Lo Lo o o o s h
v di v v L v hT t n dt 
= + = +
 (8)where
n
is the turns ratio (
 N 
1
/
 N 
2
) of the transformer Tr.Substituting (4)–(6) into (7), yielding
121
()()(), .2(1)
 s h L L s h
e di t di t hT t t dt dt k L
= = +
(9)Then, the coupled-inductor currents,
i
 L
1
and
i
 L
2
, are derived as
121
()()()(), .2(1)
 s h L L s s h
e i t i t t hT hT t k L
= = +
 (10)From (8), the following equation is found to be
11
(), .
co Lo s ho
vvdi nhT t t dt L
=
(11)At
=
h
1
, the peak values of 
i
 L
1
,
i
 L
2
, and
i
 Lo
are given by
1,2,
(),2(1)
 s h L p h L p h on
e i i k L
= =+
 (12)
1,
,
co Lop h ono
vvni  L
=
(13)where
on
is equal to
dT 
 s
and
is the duty ratio.While the switches, S
1
and S
2
, are turned off, the voltagesacross the primary and secondary windings of the coupledinductor are obtained as
12112
, .
 L L c h h
v v v t t
= =
 (14)
13
, .
 Lo o h h
v v t t
=
 (15)Substituting (4) and (5) into (14), yielding
11212
()(), .(1)
c L Lh h
vdi t di t t dt dt k L
= =+
 (16)Therefore,
i
 L
1
and
i
 L
2
are found to be
11211,12
()()(), .(1)
c L L h L p h h h
vi t i t t t i t t k L
= =+ +
 (17)From
 
(15), the following equation is derived as
13
, .
 Lo oh ho
di vt t dt L
=
 
(18)
 
Thus,
1,13
()(), .
o Lo h Lop h h ho
vi t t t i t t  L
=− − +
 
(19)As
i
 L
1
(
h
2
) =
i
 L
2
(
h
2
) = 0 and
i
 Lo
(
h
3
) = 0, the peak values of 
i
 L
1
,
i
 L
2
, and
i
 Lo
are obtained from (17) and (19).
11,2,1,
,(1)
c L p h L p h r h
vi i k L
= =+
 (20)
,2,
,
o Lop h r ho
vi  L
=
 (21)where
1,
h
 
=
h
2
 – 
h
1
and
2,
h
 
=
h
3
 – 
h
1
.
529

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