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Smu Solved Assignments by Vikas Walia
To get all solved mail on vikaswalia02@gmail.com
Smu Solved Assignments by Vikas Walia
To get all solved mail on vikaswalia02@gmail.com

Categories:Types, Research

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05/16/2013

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MB0048
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Operations Research- 4 Credits

(Book ID: B1631)

Assignment Set - 1 (60 Marks)
Q-1. a. What do you mean by Linear programming problem? Explain the steps involved inLinear programming problem formulation?b. A paper mill produces two grades of paper viz., X and Y. Because of raw materialrestrictions, it cannot produce more than 400 tons of grade X paper and 300 tons of grade Ypaper in a week. There are 160 production hours in a week. It requires 0.20 and 0.40 hours toproduce a ton of grade X and Y papers. The mill earns a profit of Rs. 200 and Rs. 500 per tonof grade X and Y paper respectively. Formulate this as a Linear Programming Problem.A-1. Linear Programming Problem:
Linear Programming (LP) is a mathematical technique designed to help managers intheir planning and decision-making. It is usually used in an organisation that is trying to makethe most effective use of its resources. Resources typically include machinery, manpower,money, time, warehouse space, and raw materials.A few examples of problems in which LP has been successfully applied are:
• Developments of a producti
on schedule that will satisfy future demands for a firm's productand at the same time minimise total production and inventory costs.
•Establishment of an investment portfolio from a variety of stocks or bonds that will maximise
a company's return on investment.
•Selection of the product mix in factory to make best use of machine and man hours availablewhile maximizing the form’s profit.
The steps involved in Linear programming problem formulation are as follows:
•Study the given situation to find the key
•Identify the variables involved and designate those symbols xj (j=1, 2....)

•State the feasible alternatives which generally are: xj≥0, for all j•Identify the constraints in the problem and express them as linear inequalities or eq
uations,LHS of which are linear functions of the decision variables.

•Identify the objective function and express it as a linear function of the decision variables.

Q-2. a. Discuss the methodology of Operations Research.b. Explain in brief the phases of Operations Research.A-2. a. Operations Research Methodology:
The basic dominant characteristic feature of operations research is that it employsmathematical representations or models to analyse problems. This distinct approachrepresents an adaptation of the scientific methodology used by the physical sciences.
Problem DefinitionModel ConstructionModel SolutionModel ValidationResult Implementation
Let us now study the steps in detail.
1.

Definition:
The first and the most important step in the OR approach of problem solving is to define theproblem.
2.

Construction:
Based on the problem definition, you need to identify and select the most appropriatemodel to represent the system.
3.

Solution:
After deciding on an appropriate model, you need to develop a solution for the modeland interpret the solution in the context of the given problem. A solution to a model impliesdetermination of a specific set of decision variables that would yield an optimum solution.

4.

Validation:
A model is a good representation of a system. However, the optimal solution must worktowards improving the system's performance. You can test the validity of a model by comparingits performance with some past dab available from the actual system.
5.

Implementation:
You need to apply the optimal solution obtained from the model to the system and note theimprovement, in the performance of the system. You need to validate this performance checkunder changing conditions.
b. Phases of Operations Research:
The scientific method in OR study generally involves three phases. Let us now study the phasesin detail.
1.

Judgment phase:
This phase includes the following activities:
• Determination of the operations

• Establishment of objectives a
nd values related to the operations
• Determination of suitable measures of effectiveness

2.

Research phase:
This phase utilizes the following methodologies:
• Operation and data collection for a better understanding of the problems • Formulation of
hypothesis and model
• Observation and experimentation to test the hypothesis on the basis of additional data

• Prediction of various results and consideration of alternative methods.

3.

Action phase:
This phase involves making recommendations for the decision process. The recommendationscan be made by those who identify and present the problem or by anyone who influences theoperation in which the problem has occurred.
Q-3. Solve the following Linear Programming Problem using Simple method.