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Curie, the pair studied the elements and radioac-tivity. Marie was the ﬁrst to discover radioactivity in an element, thorium. She and Pierre went onto discover two new elements, polonium (whichshe named for her native Poland) and radium. Asa result of her 1903 dissertation on radium, shewas awarded a doctorate in science, the ﬁrst everfor a woman in all of Europe. e Curies receivedthe Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903 for their work,and Marie became the ﬁrst woman to be awardedthis prestigious prize. eir prize winnings werepoured back into their research.• e year 1904 was an eventful one for Marie – shewas awarded a professorship at the Sorbonne, es-tablished the use of radiation therapy for cancer,and gave birth to her second child. Just two yearslater, Pierre was run over by a horse-drawn car-riage in Paris and died, leaving Marie a widow atage 37 with two young daughters to raise alone.Shortly aerward, she was awarded Pierre’s de-partment chair position at the Sorbonne, becom-ing the ﬁrst woman ever to hold achair there, and the ﬁrst woman to teach at theSorbonne. Although she was oﬀered a nationalpension following Pierre’s death, she declined it.• Marie’s second Nobel Prize came along in 1911,this time in the ﬁeld of Chemistry, for her isola-tion of pure radium. is set her apart as the only woman to win the Nobel Prize in two diﬀerentﬁelds up to that date. is time, Marie donatedher prize money toward equipping World WarI ambulances with portable X-ray machines, aswell as establishing 200 permanent X-ray stationsin France and Belgium.• e laboratories of the Radium Institute at theUniversity of Paris opened in 1914, and the Cu-rie Foundation was established in 1920 to work toward applying radium in medical procedures.Marie’s daughter Irene joined her mother in herresearch at the Institute.• Marie Curie certainly passed on her brilliance tothe next generation. In 1934, her daughter Ireneand her husband discovered artiﬁcial radioactiv-ity, an accomplishment for which they receiveda Nobel Prize in 1935. Unfortunately, Marie didnot live to see her daughter’s award. Seemingly unaware of the eﬀects of radioactivity on humanhealth during all her years of research, Marie con-tracted leukemia, most likely due to her prolongedexposure. She died a few months aer Irene’s dis-covery. Sadly, Irene developed leukemia as welland died from the eﬀects of radiation exposure.e Curies’ notebooks recording their researchremain so radioactive today that they still cannotbe handled without protection, and are stored inlead-lined boxes.• e name Curie is a household word among sci-entists, as it is used as the name of the unit of measure for radioactivity.