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tr2003_1_04

tr2003_1_04

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Published by ABDUL SHAFI M

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Published by: ABDUL SHAFI M on Feb 20, 2009
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05/10/2014

 
PERIODICAPOLYTECHNICA SER. TRANSP. ENG. VOL. 31, NO.1–2, PP. 53– 78 (2003) 
COMPUTATIONAL INVESTIGATION ON DESWIRL VANES FORMULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS
Árpád V
ERESS
Department of Aircraft and ShipsBudapest University of Technology and EconomicsH–1111 Budapest, Sztoczek u. 6, J ép. 4.em. 426, HungaryTel: (36) 1-463-1992e-mail: veress@rht.bme.huReceived: Aug. 31, 2002
Abstract
The goal of this project is to report on some computational investigations about the return flowpassages. The return flow channel provides the connection and carries the flow between two stagesof a multistage centrifugal compressor. Of course, deswirl vanes are indispensable between the inletand outlet section, because usually the inlet flow angle, which comes from the impeller, is 70
75
measured from radius and the downstream flow angle should be axial, for the next stage. Generally,the shape of this unconventional blade is unique; it is not possible to choose it from any catalogues.During the design procedures, a couple of new blade design techniques have been developed;among them one is based on a zero circulation over the control surface, between two blades withthe meaning of CBL (constant blade loading) [14]. The purpose of this investigation is to construct a 3D blade for the return passage. In addition, a system of programs for UNIX was developed tohelp us to communicate between the different software. The next step is to use the inviscid inversedesign program to make the most relevant blade; provided by the CBL design, as perfect as possibleand introduce negative and positive lean to improve the design specifications. Finally, we shouldanalyse the configuration with a 3D Navier-Stokes solver to have some conclusions about the newblade geometry.Of course, in the design process, the loss coefficient and pressure recovery factor are the twomain parameters, which are always taken into consideration to check the correctness of the design.
Keywords:
return flow channel, inverse design method, Euler and Navier-Stokes solver.
1. Introduction
In most multi-stage centrifugal compressors a big amount of the energy, importedto the fluid leaving the impeller of a given stage, is in the form of kinetic energy orvelocity with meridional and tangential components. To ensure a good efficiencyand further pressure recovery it is necessary to convert as much kinetic energyas possible into static pressure before the fluid is entering the next stage. Theobjective of a return channel is furthermore to change the flow direction from theradial-tangential direction to an axial direction.In general, a return channel of a conventional radial multi-stage compressorconsists of all or some of the following components:
 
54
Á. VERESS
• A vaneless or vaned diffuser, which partially diffuses the flow leaving theimpeller.• An annular passage, which directs the flow from the exit of the vanelessdiffuser to the inlet of the next stage.• And finally a set of vanes somewhere after the bend section to remove theswirl in the flow and to recover some of the kinetic energy in the remainingvelocity after passing the diffuser and the bend.In order to optimise the whole crossover system, there appears very little thatcan be done to change the efficiency and pressure recovery of the vaneless diffuser.Big losses occur in the crossover system where the flowundergoes astrong turning.T
HYGESEN
in his work showed, that better efficiency is possible if deswirl vanesextend over the return bend[10]. The vane geometry can be varied in many ways and there is also a free choiceof the location of trailing edge and leading edge and number of the vanes. Theobjective of this report is to make use of these opportunities, which are left overin the design process of return channel blades. Thus, improvements in the designof the vanes should be possible, and furthermore, if the efficiency and pressurerecovery factor of the vanes can be improved, less diffusion in the vaneless diffusermay be required, which can materially reduce the overall compressor size.
Fig. 1
. Dresser-Rand DATUM multi-stage centrifugal compressor
 
COMPUTATIONAL INVESTIGATION 
55
180
0
return bendInlet of return flow channelVaneless diffuserCompressor casingShroudImpellerDeswirl vaneTrailing edge of the vaneOutlet of returnflow channel,inlet of the nextstage
Fig. 2
. Meridional cross section about the configuration
2. Design Parameters
Thenexttwoparametersshouldalwaysbecheckedforeverycrossoverconfigurationto guide the design.
Loss coefficient:
ω
=
p
toin
p
toout
 p
toin
p
stin
; which indicates what part of the available ki-netic energy is dissipated by the pressure losses, with
p
toin
=
p
stin
+
p
dynin
; and
 p
toout
=
p
stout
+
p
dynout
.
Pressure recovery factor:
 p
=
 p
stout
p
stin
 p
toin
p
stin
; which quantifies what part of thekinetic energy has been converted into static pressure. Thiscoefficient isalsoimportant, because along the diffuser and return passage we would like toreach as much pressure rise as possible.
3. Computational Tools
3.1. Euler Solve
The basis of the inverse design code is an Euler solver. The solver is a cell-centeredfinite volume method that solves the time dependent Euler equations that are pre-sented next:
 
d
v
+
 
Hn
d
 A
=
0
;

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