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CONIC SECTIONS

CONIC SECTIONS

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06/17/2013

 
 CONIC SECTIONS
LOCI
The curve described by a point which moves under given conditions is called its
locus
 (plural
loci
).Example : If C (
h,k 
) is a fixed point in the Cartesian plane and P (
 x,y
) is a variable point(moving) on that plane such that its distance from C is always equal to its y coordinate,find the locus of P.Solution :
Therefore,distancePC 
=
 y,
[
 x
@
h
` a
2
+
 y
@
b c
2
wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww
=
 y,distancebetweentwopointsP
1
 x
1
 ,y
1
` a
andP
2
 x
2
 ,y
2
` a
i
ε
A
P
1
P
2
=
 x
1
@
 x
2
` a
2
+
 y
1
@
 y
2
` a
2
wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww
d e
[
 x
@
h
` a
2
+
 y
@
b c
2
=
 y
2
[
 x
2
@
2
hx
+
h
2
+
 y
2
@
2
ky
+
2
=
 y
2
[
 x
2
@
2
hx
+
h
2
=
2
ky
@
2
[
 x
@
h
` a
2
=
2
ky
@
2
 ffff
f g
whichistheequationofaparabola
A
 
CONIC SECTIONS
Conic sections are the curves that are formed when we make a straight cut in a cone i.e.when a plane intersects a right circular cone. These curves are
 
Circle,
 
Parabola
 
Ellipse and
 
Hyperbola.
 
 
CIRCLE
If in a plane there is a fixed point C (
h,k 
) and a point P (
 x,y)
moves in such a way that itsdistance from C is always constant, then the path or locus of P is a
 
 circle
.If the constant distance =
Then
(P,C) =
r.
Using distance formula
 x
@
h
` a
2
+
 y
@
b c
2
wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww
=
[
 x
@
h
` a
2
+
 y
@
b c
2
=
2
 The
standard equation
of the circle with centre (h,k) and radius r is given by
 x
@
h
` a
2
+
 y
@
b c
2
=
2
 If the centre of the circle is the
origin (0,0)
and the radius is
r,
then the equation becomes
x
2
+
y
2
=
r
2
 
 
 
Example : Find the equation of the circle with centre (3,-2) and radius 5.Solution : Using h = 3, k = -2 in the standard equation we get
 x
@
3
` a
2
+
 y
@ @
2
` aB C
2
=
5
2
[
 x
@
3
` a
2
+
 y
+
2
b c
2
=
5
2
 Example : Find the centre and radius of the circle
 x
2
@
4
 x
+
 y
2
+
2
 y
@
9
=
0 Solution :
 x
2
@
4
 x
+
 y
2
+
2
 y
@
11
=
0
 x
2
@
4
 x
+
 y
2
+
2
 y
=
11
 x
2
@
4
 x
+
4
b c
+
 y
2
+
2
 y
+
1
b c
=
11
+
4
+
1
 x
@
2
` a
2
+
 y
+
1
b c
2
=
4
2
ComparingwiththestandardequationCentre
2
 ,
@
1
b c
 Radius
=
4
units
 
PARABOLA
If in a plane there is a fixed point F and a fixed line
l
, and a point P moves in such a waythat its distance from F and
l
is always equal, then the path or locus of P is a
 
 parabola
.F is called the
 Focu
s
and
l
is the
 Directrix
.
The line through focus perpendicular to thedirectrix is the
axis of symmetry.
The
vertex
V lies on this axis halfway between the focusand the directrix or the point at which the parabola intersects the axis of symmetry.

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