kidneys and the enveloping perirenal fat in plain films provides a crude index of renal anatomy and pathologic changes
ray density as contrast) it serves as the film of reference for all subsequent films done after injection of contrast material.
\ue000absence of renal function .
\ue000absence of perfusion to a kidney
\ue000Useful to identify urinary tract obstruction
\ue000Useful to evaluate reno-vascular disease
\ue000Recurrent urinary tract Infections
\ue000Suspected reno-vascular hypertension
renal concentrating ability to allow the kidneys to be seen on an x-ray.
replaced this test for many functions, retrograde pyelography may still yield better definition of the upper urinary tract, particularly the ureter and kidney collecting syst
inadequate picture. Useful to study urinary tract obstruction when further clarification of nature of ureteral obstruction is required
while investigating a patient with hematuria or recurrent or suspected cancer.
ruptured, extravasation of contrast will be seen outside the bladder in the pelvis or abdomen.
necessary to evaluate the male urethra for posterior valves and bladder trauma, the majority of reflux studies today are done effectively with radionuclide cystography.
produce real-time images, provides a simple and painless way to examine the kidney, bladder, prostate and scrotum
\ue000Requires no preparation
\ue000Can be done at bedside
\ue000Relatively economical exam
\ue000Renal mass / Abdominal mass
\ue000Recurrent Urinary tract infections
\ue000Chronic renal failure
\ue000In evaluating solid abdominal masses
\ue000Local staging of cancer Kidney to allow
exquisite detail, MRI can detect disease and evaluate renal vasculature and inferior vena cava
\ue000MRI has limited applicability for the urinary
tract since the non-specificity of its signals makes it ineffective in detecting calcifications and bladder abnormalities.
lung cancer, an adrenal mass is problematic and diagnosing a metastasis versus an adenoma is critical for prognosis
\ue000Non-enhanced CT (NECT)
\ue000Threshold 10 HU
\ue000Sensitivity 79%, specificity 96%
\ue000arise from the adrenal cortex
\ue000bilateral in up to 10% of patients.
\ue000Approximately 50-80% are functional tumors,
\ue000Virilization and precocious puberty
\ue000Large mass (>4 cm)
\ue000Central necrosis or hemorrhage
\ue000Invasion into adjacent structures
\ue000Venous extension into the renal vein or inferior
adrenal cortex; cyst or pseudocyst; hematoma; infection; inflammation (eg, tuberculosis, histoplasmosis); metastasis (eg, lung or breast related);
neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, or ganglioneuroma; pheochromocytoma (eg, multiple endocrine neoplasia)
trauma, bleeding disorder), histoplasmosis, hyperplasia, metastasis (eg, lung or breast related), neuroblastoma, and tuberculosis
(eg, multiple, primary), infection (ie, others), lymphoma,
(multiple endocrine neoplasia), and Wolman disease (eg, familial xanthomatosis)
hemorrhage. These lesions are heterogeneous and may have thick enhancing rims. They may also invade contiguous organs such as the kidneys.
Acute, fulminant, necrotizing infection of kidney and perirenal tissues associated with gas formation which may be life-threatening
renal parenchyma radiating from medulla to cortex
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