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Cardiac Imaging

Cardiac Imaging

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Published by: sarguss14 on Feb 20, 2009
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Cardiac Imaging
Cardiac Position and Sinus
Cardiac Positions
\u2022
Levocardia: the heart is predominantly in the
left chest, the cardiac apex points leftward
\u2022
Dextrocardia: the heart is predominantly in
the right chest, and the cardiac apex points
rightward
\u2022
Mesocardia: the heart is positioned in the
midline, and the cardiac apex points directly
inferiorly
\u2022
Dextroposition (dextroversion): the cardia

apex points leftward, but the heart is located predominantly in the right chest (typically due to extrinsic forces)

Visceroatrial Situs
\u2022
\u201cSITUS\u201d refers to the pattern of anatomic
arrangement
\u2022
Atrial situs is usually concordant with visceral
situs; hence, these two are described together
\u2022
Situs solitus
o
The morphologic right atrium is to the
right of the morphologic left atrium
o
The gastric air bubbles is on the left
side and the liver on the right
\u2022
Situs inversus
o
The morphologic right atrium is to the
left of the morphologic left atrium
o
The gastric air bubbles is on the right
side, and the liver is on the left
\u2022
Situs ambiguous
\u2022
This term is used when identification of
visceroatrial situs is not possible due to
paucity of anatomic markers
\u2022
Dextrocardia
\u2022
Sinus solitus
\u2022
Dextrocardia
\u2022
Sinus inversus
\u2022
Situs
Ambiguous
Cardiac Size
\u2022
Cardio-Thoracic Ratio: divide the widest

transverse diameter of the heart by the widest transverse diameter of the thorax taken at the inner side of the rib cage

Chamber
Enlargement
\u2022
Right Atrial Enlargement
o
lateral bulging of the
right heart border
o
elongation of the

right heart border (length of right heart border exceeds 50% of the mediastinal cardiovascular

shadow)

NOTES:
In Dextrocardia, gastric
bubbles is on the right
side

2 of 6
\u2022
Right Ventricular Enlargement
o
PA View :

Rounding and
upliftment of
cardiac apex

o
Lateral View :

Retrosternal
fullness
(contact of
anterior cardiac
border greater
than 1/3 of the
sternal length)

\u2022
Left Atrial
Enlargement
o
PA view :
Double density
o
PA view :
Enlargement
of LA
appendage
o
PA view :

Upliftment of
left mainstem
bronchus

o
Lateral View :
-
Prominent
posterosuperior
cardiac border
-
Posterior
displacement

and upliftment of left mainstem bronchus

\u2022
Left Ventricular Enlargement
o
PA view :

lateral and
downward
displacement
of the cardiac
apex

o
Lateral View :
-
Posterior
displacement of the posterior
inferior border of the heart
-
Hoffman-Rigler
Sign:

measured 2 cm above the intersection of the diaphragm & IVC; (+) if posterior border extends more than 1.8 cm of IVC

Pulmonary Vascular Pattern
2 of 6
Comparison of Normal and Increased
Lateral View
Comparison of Normal and Decreased
Lateral View
Venous Congestion
Increased Arterial Blood Flow
Kerley\u2019s B lines
Perihalar Haziness
Peribronchial Cuffing

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