customers, not the government itself. All this will require a long term vision andwillingness for profound re-engineering of service delivery to the end customers.Primarily, this process requires the investment of significant efforts and resources aimedat creating the infrastructure that will provide preconditions for implementation of systemsthat can offer easily accessible and citizen-oriented e-Government services. Anygovernment that wants to provide integrative, accessible and proactive services to citizensand businesses needs to seriously address the following infrastructural issues:
Policy framework and Legislation;
Common network/communication infrastructure;
Electronic ID Management;
Interoperability framework.Electronic identity (eID), as official proof of one’s identity, is becoming increasingly anoutstanding issue in various e-Government programs and initiatives. The electronic identitymanagement (eIDM) or simply electronic ID (eID), provides authentication that has thefunction of corroborating claimed identities of entities in order to generate a reliable contextin which it is possible to ensure legal certainty to transactions that take place through anelectronic modality 
Therefore, electronic identity enables convenient and secure accessto a large number of public services. Over the last decade, this need for electronic identity,along with electronic signature, which would protect the confidentiality and integrity of data, became even more eminent in all domains of public sphere. All transactionscompleted with use of electronic identity and electronic signature, along with support of proper lawful acts, offer the users a legal support (legal signature).The European Union has clearly recognized the importance of introduction of eIDsolutions, as strongly expressed in "eID White Paper" from 2003: "…electronic identity isof major importance for the deployment of secure e-Government, e-administration and e-commerce services, and that interoperable eID systems can help in bringing Europetogether" . This issue is also well addressed in many other EU policy papers such asi2010 EU policy framework for the information society and media, adopted by theEuropean Commission in 2005 , "A Roadmap for a pan-European eIDM Framework by2010" , and similar. Therefore, many EU countries have introduced eID systems even before 2006 (Finland starting from 1999, Estonia since 2002, Belgium 2004, Italy, Sweden,Austria, and Spain 2005) .In this paper, we are using two case studies of conceptually different, but wellimplemented eID systems (Austria and Belgium), and one case study of a country withoutimplemented eID system (Bosnia and Herzegovina) to illustrate the importance of eIDmanagement as the key enabler of integrated and accessible e-Government solutions.
Belgium is comprised of no less than five government instances: federal, community,regional, provincial and the municipality levels – each of which is responsible for particular domains of public services .
Yet, the vision delineated by the FEDICT
, the FederalPublic Service for ICT of the Belgian Federal Government, responsible for defining andimplementing an e-Government strategy
“Enable one virtual government consistent to the customers with full respect for every single competency.”
We will illustrate by an example of Belgium, how structural obstacles can be overcometo make an operational e-Government system, including the Electronic Identity system asits highlight and a baseline for further development of services. To address the
FEDICT was created by Royal Order on May 11, 2001, as part of the plans of the first VerhofstadtGovernment to modernise the federal administration