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Engineering Life-human Rights in a Post Modern Age

Engineering Life-human Rights in a Post Modern Age

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Published by pilesar
Absolute Truth and Morality. From Answers in Genesis.
Absolute Truth and Morality. From Answers in Genesis.

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Published by: pilesar on Feb 23, 2013
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ENGINEERING LIFE: Human Rights in a Postmodern Age
 by Jim Leffel
Summary
Even scientists were shocked when researchers in Scotland recentlydisclosed the successful cloning of a mammal. Leaders from around theworld were quick to recognize the clear implications for human rights. If alamb can be cloned, then the door is open to clone humans. But cloning is just one further advance in presently existing genetic research andtechnology that poses real dangers for human rights. In a post-Christian, postmodern world only a biblical view of human dignity can provide themoral basis to distinguish between what science can do and what scienceshould do. Christians must be prepared to address these issues.Medical research and technology have produced an astounding array of  breakthroughs in the latter half of this century. Penicillin, polioimmunization, and diagnostic techniques that detect deadly diseases in theearly stages have saved millions of lives. Yet in recent years advances in biotechnology have surpassed our ability to anticipate their theological andethical implications. Nowhere is this more evident than with genetics. As theHuman Genome Project nears completing its goal to map the entire humangenetic structure and scientists successfully clone mammals and even primates, we are presented with a whole new set of ethical quandaries. Theseissues are likely to be at the forefront of human rights concerns as we enter into the next century. As technology continues to advance, Christians needto broaden their pro-life focus. Consider just a few examples:• Researchers in Scotland have successfully cloned the first mammal. Thetechnological door may now open to clone human beings.• A New Jersey family takes its doctor to court for allowing the "wrongful birth" of their Down’s syndrome child. Over 300 similar suits have reachedthe courts in recent years. Today, as in an earlier time, we hear of "lifeunworthy of life."• A child is conceived in California for the purpose of serving as a bonemarrow donor for an older sibling. The cells are harvested and her sister lives. It is not only possible, but also legal to create human life for "spare parts."
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• State law protects an embryo conceived in a Louisiana laboratory. Yet, assoon as the embryo is implanted into the mother, federal law removes its protection and it can be aborted.• Researchers at Harvard and Stanford Medical Schools uncover over 200cases of genetic discrimination. Based on "preexisting conditions," insurancecompanies have denied coverage to people who carry some geneticallytransmitted disorders even though they currently show no disease symptomsand perhaps never will.Each of these incidents illustrates the complexities introduced by genetictechnology. They involve obvious ethical and legal dilemmas, but a more basic and all-too-often ignored question must also be explored: What is ahuman person? Without an answer to this question, moral and legal debate isalmost pointless. How, for example, can we speak of protecting humanrights without identifying the bearer of those rights?Citing a lengthy bibliography of current scholarly works on the meaning of "personhood," psychologist and social critic Kenneth Gergen observes, "Oneof the most interesting aspects of this work is that it exists at all, for onlyunder particular cultural conditions would the question be considered worthyof such attention."
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What are the "particular cultural conditions" to whichGergen refers? Both in academia and in popular culture we are experiencinga sweeping ideological shift. It is the decline of Enlightenment assumptionsthat have guided Western civilization for the past 250 years and theemergence of a "postmodern" cultural consensus. This shift in thought has been extensively documented in public opinion
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and in more scholarlywork.
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However, there has been little analysis of the practical implications of  postmodernism for the pressing biomedical issues of our day. As postmodern language and concepts increasingly become a significant part of the public discussion about human nature and medical ethics, it is essentialthat Christians understand the thinking beneath the rhetoric and formulatecompelling responses to it.This article is an attempt to turn the discussion in that direction. We willconsider the meaning of personhood as conceived by postmodernists and itsimplications in an age of genetic technology. We will further observe that a biblical view of humanity uniquely provides moral guidance through theturbulent waters of our postmodern era.
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FROM THEISTIC TO MODERN THEN POSTMODERNANTHROPOLOGY
To understand what’s at stake with current issues surrounding genetics, weneed to consider two crucial points of transition from biblical theism tomodern and postmodern concepts of human personhood. Western culturewas built largely on a biblical concept of human nature. Humans arerational, but limited in knowledge by their own finiteness and fallenness. Wecan reason, but revelation discloses ultimate truths. Furthermore, eventhough we are corrupted by the fall, since we are created in the image of God we have intrinsic value as individuals. By the late seventeenth century,however, a new way of conceiving human nature emerged, and modernismwas born.For modernists,
humans are rational by nature.
French philosopher RenéDescartes is considered by many as the father of modern philosophy. Partingcompany with medieval thought that sought to root reason in the soil of Christian belief,
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Descartes attempted to discover truth independent of divinerevelation. He began inwardly, with his rationalistic deduction: "I think,therefore I am." Descartes’s first certainty was that "I exist as a thinkingthing." The concept of humanity as rational by nature became the hallmark of Enlightenment thought.Second, the subtle assertion underlying Cartesian method is that the
self isautonomous
. By autonomous, we mean that the individual self (the "I" that"thinks") transcends or stands above environment and biology. Descartes based his theory of an autonomous self on mind/body dualism — the ideathat an immaterial mind stands over and apart from nature. Later  philosophers rejected Cartesian dualism and the theism it presumed, but for more than two hundred years, most maintained the belief in an autonomousself and confidence in the rational objectivity it made possible. Theautonomous, rational self became the foundation for Enlightenmenthumanism and its liberal political theory, free market economics, and radicalindividualism.
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 Postmodernism is a direct assault on the entire Enlightenment enterprise. Atthe heart of it, postmodernists deny the possibility of rational objectivity because they reject the view of the self that modernism presupposes. Rather than seeing humanity as an ocean of autonomous rational selves, asmodernists held, postmodernists think of humans as an extension of culture
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