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Radiocesium in Pacific Bluefin Tuna Thunnus orientalis in 2012

Radiocesium in Pacific Bluefin Tuna Thunnus orientalis in 2012

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Published by Patricia Dillon

Radioactive fish in Californiua years after Fukushima EST_2013_DJM

Radioactive fish in Californiua years after Fukushima EST_2013_DJM

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Published by: Patricia Dillon on Feb 23, 2013
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09/30/2013

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Radiocesium in Paci
c Blue
n Tuna
Thunnus orientalis
in 2012Validates New Tracer Technique
Daniel J. Madigan,
*
Zo
a Baumann,
Owyn E. Snodgrass,
Halim A. Ergu
            ̈
l,
Heidi Dewar,
and Nicholas S. Fisher
Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, 120 Ocean View Boulevard, Paci
c Grove, California 93950, United States
School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, United States
§
Fisheries Resources Division, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 8604 La Jolla ShoresDrive, La Jolla, California 92037, United States
Department of Biology, Kocaeli University, 41300 Umutteppe, I
         ̇
zmit, Kocaeli, Turkey 
*
S
 ABSTRACT:
The detection of Fukushima-derived radionuclides inPaci
c blue
n tuna (PBFT) that crossed the Paci
c Ocean to theCalifornia Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) in 2011presented the potential to use radiocesium as a tracer in highly migratory species. This tracer requires that all western Paci
c Ocean emigrantsacquire the
134
Cs signal, a radioisotope undetectable in Paci
c biota priorto the Fukushima accident in 2011. We tested the e
cacy of theradiocesium tracer by measuring
134
Cs and
137
Cs in PBFT (
n
= 50)caught in the CCLME in 2012, more than a year after the Fukushimaaccident. All small PBFT (
n
= 28; recent migrants from Japan) had
134
Cs(0.7
±
0.2 Bq kg
1
) and elevated
137
Cs (2.0
±
0.5 Bq kg
1
) in their whitemuscle tissue. Most larger, older
sh (
n
= 22) had no
134
Cs and only  background levels of 
137
Cs, showing that one year in the CCLME issu
cient for
134
Cs and
137
Cs values in PBFT to reach pre-Fukushima levels. Radiocesium concentrations in 2012 PBFT were lessthan half those from 2011 and well below safety guidelines for public health. Detection of 
134
Cs in all recent migrant PBFTsupports the use of radiocesium as a tracer in migratory animals in 2012.
INTRODUCTION
The discharge of radionuclides into the western Paci
c Oceanin 2011 from the failed Fukushima nuclear power plant has ledto studies of radionuclide concentrations in seawater and marine biota, both near Japan
1
3
and in migratory marinespecies.
4
In 2011, radiocesium from Fukushima was detected inPaci
c blue
n tuna,
Thunnus orientalis,
that had recently traversed the North Paci
c Ocean, suggesting the potential forFukushima-derived radionuclides to serve as tracers of long-distancemigrations by highly migratory species in the Paci
cOcean.
4
 While tools such as electronic tags have providedextensiv eanimal movement data prospective from the date of tagging,
5
chemical tracers (such as radiocesium) can provideretrospectiv e migration information that is often uniquely informative.
4 ,6
8
Certain conditions are necessary for the reliable use of Fukushima-derived radiocesium to trace migrations. While
137
Cs (
1/2
= 30.1 years) still exists throughout the Paci
c inlow,
 background
levels as a result of nuclear weapons testingthat peaked in the 1960s, the shorter lived
134
Cs (
1/2
=2.1 years) from nuclear weapons testing has long since decayed.
2
 A point source of anthropogenic radionuclides such as Fukushimais therefore the only substantial source of 
134
Cs in the Paci
cOcean, and consequently the presence of 
134
Cs indicates recentmigration from the contaminated region. For reliableapplication of this tracer, all animals migrating fromcontaminated waters must accumulate and retain measurablelevels of 
134
Cs to accurately identify their status as recentmigrants from the western Paci
c (to avoid interpretation of recent migrants as residents). Conversely, animals must excrete
134
Cs in their new environment at some determinable rate sothat absence of 
134
Cs can be interpreted as residency in thenoncontaminated region for an interpretable period of time (toavoid erroneous identi
cation of recent migrants, and toconstrain the time range of a
recent
migration). Given thatpotential transport of Fukushima-derived radiocesium iscurrently being examined in a variety of migratory animalsincluding whales, turtles, tunas, sharks, and seabirds to infermigratory patterns, it is critical to test these assumptions.Paci
c blue
n tuna (PBFT) are an ideal species for the validation and application of the radiocesium tracer. All PBFT
Received:
January 16, 2013
Revised:
February 5, 2013
 Accepted:
February 11, 2013
© XXXX American Chemical Society
A
dx.doi.org/10.1021/es4002423
|
Environ. Sci. Technol.
XXXX, XXX, XXX
XXX
 
spawn in the westernPaci
c Ocean, and juveniles forage in the waters around Japan.
9
 Juveniles then either remain in the western Paci
c or migrate eastward to the California CurrentLarge Marine Ecosystem (CCLME). Most PBFT arethoughtto migrate late in their
rst year or early in their second.
9
Thus,the youngest PBFT in the CCLME (approximately 1
1.5 yearsold) must have migrated from Japan within the preceding year.Previous studies suggest that larger, older PBFT in the CCLMEare primarily residents for >1 year.
9
However, some
sh migratefrom Japan at older ages, and in a given year the proportion of 
Table 1. Catch Date, Size, Estimated Age, and Radionuclide Concentrations in 50 Paci
c Blue
n Tuna (PBFT)
Thunnusorientalis
, Captured in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem in 2012
a
SL
b
age
134
Cs
137
Cs
40
PBFT no. catch date cm years Bq kg
1
dry wt
134
Cs:
137
Cs1 8/4/2012 63.1 1.3 0.64 1.72 385 0.372 8/4/2012 63.4 1.3 0.61 2.03 372 0.303 8/4/2012 63.5 1.3 0.33 1.61 382 0.204 8/4/2012 63.8 1.3 0.67 1.82 456 0.375 8/4/2012 64.8 1.4 0.56 2.23 275 0.256 8/4/2012 65.6 1.4 0.58 1.51 347 0.387 8/4/2012 65.8 1.4 0.61 2.03 455 0.308 8/4/2012 65.8 1.4 0.79 1.82 405 0.439 8/4/2012 65.9 1.4 0.76 2.45 500 0.3110 8/4/2012 66.2 1.4 0.50 1.43 364 0.3511 8/18/2012 66.6 1.4 0.59 2.71 412 0.2212 8/4/2012 66.6 1.4 0.69 1.89 422 0.3713 8/4/2012 66.8 1.4 1.30 2.91 446 0.4514 8/4/2012 67.0 1.4 0.98 2.45 471 0.4015 8/4/2012 67.1 1.4 0.60 1.93 335 0.3116 8/4/2012 67.4 1.5 0.49 1.58 388 0.3117 8/4/2012 67.8 1.5 0.75 1.89 487 0.3918 8/4/2012 67.9 1.5 0.51 1.50 362 0.3419 8/4/2012 68.5 1.5 0.54 2.23 310 0.2420 8/18/2012 68.9 1.5 0.30 1.22 269 0.2421 8/4/2012 68.9 1.5 0.42 1.13 269 0.3722 8/4/2012 69.0 1.5 0.75 1.95 459 0.3923 8/4/2012 69.1 1.5 0.68 1.66 382 0.4124 8/18/2012 69.4 1.5 0.96 3.12 497 0.3125 8/4/2012 69.4 1.5 0.75 2.14 324 0.3526 8/4/2012 69.9 1.6 0.41 1.16 226 0.3527 8/4/2012 71.8 1.6 0.54 1.88 383 0.2928 8/22/2012 72.3 1.6 1.14 2.93 702 0.3929 6/9/2012 73.7 1.7 nd 1.00 399
30 6/10/2012 76.5 1.8 0.86 2.29 439 0.3831 6/9/2012 77.4 1.8 nd 1.33 432
32 6/10/2012 78.0 1.9 nd 1.98 534
33 8/18/2012 79.2 1.9 nd 0.98 540
34 8/18/2012 79.5 1.9 nd 0.94 676
35 8/18/2012 80.7 2.0 nd 0.96 588
36 8/18/2012 80.7 2.0 1.19 3.14 561 0.3837 6/9/2012 81.0 2.0 nd 1.69 371
38 8/18/2012 81.0 2.0 1.26 3.81 518 0.3339 8/4/2012 82.8 2.1 nd 0.54 438
40 8/18/2012 84.4 2.1 0.61 2.63 349 0.2341 8/18/2012 87.3 2.2 1.16 4.21 564 0.2842 6/10/2012 107.7 3.0 nd 1.43 613
43 6/10/2012 108.5 3.0 nd 0.86 503
44 6/10/2012 109.8 3.1 nd 1.71 711
45 6/10/2012 112.7 3.2 nd 1.37 505
46 6/10/2012 115.7 3.3 nd 0.36 482
47 5/26/2012 117.0 3.4 nd 1.28 429
48 6/10/2012 118.3 3.4 nd 0.53 459
49 6/10/2012 122.4 3.6 nd 1.08 543
50 5/26/2012 132.4 4.0 nd 0.97 558
a
Small PBFT: nos. 1-28; larger PBFT: nos. 29-50, as de
ned in the text.
b
Estimated from CFL.
Estimated from SL.
nd: not detected. Dash (
)indicates
134
Cs:
137
Cs ratios that could not be determined due to nondetection of 
134
Cs.
Environmental Science & Technology
Article
dx.doi.org/10.1021/es4002423
|
Environ. Sci. Technol.
XXXX, XXX, XXX
XXX
B
 
 Japan migrants to CCLME residents is largely unknown. Thisinformation could improve
sheries modeling and managementof PBFT, inwhich severe population declines have recently  been reported.
For radiocesium to function as a reliable tracer in PBFT, allPBFT in the CCLME below some threshold age (which must be recent migrants from Japan) must assimilate adequateconcentrations of 
134
Cs before their eastward migration andretain measurable concentrations after their trans-Paci
cmigration to the CCLME. Marine
sh have been sho wn toacquire Cs from both the aqueous phase and from diet.
Older
sh in the CCLME that are residential(>1year in theCCLME) must lose
134
Cs due to excretion,
4,14 ,15
so that only recently migrated
sh would carry measurable levels of 
134
Cs,allowing the
134
Cs to distinguish recent migrants from >1 yearCCLME residents. We collected 50 samples of PBFT in 2012 and measuredmuscle tissue for
134
Cs and
137
Cs to determine if the acquisitionof radiocesium by migrating PBFT persisted into the summerof 2012, more than a year after the Fukushima disaster.Radiocesium levels were compared to concentrations of another
γ 
-emitting radionuclide, the naturally occurring
40
K,to provide context for observed radiocesium concentrations.For comparison, we also collected 5 samples of yellow 
n tuna(
Thunnus albacares
) in 2012, which are known from electronictagging studies to be residents of the CCLME and do not makemigrations from the western Paci
c Ocean.
5 ,16
 We used smallPBFT, known to be migrants from Japan, to test whether allmigrants would demonstrate a measurable radiocesium signalfrom Fukushima. We examined the radiocesium levels in older
sh to determine if residents and migrants could be discerned via the absence of 
134
Cs (due to excretion during a year or morein CCLME waters) or presence of 
134
Cs (due to recentmigration from Japan). Finally, we use ratios of 
134
Cs:
137
Cs toestimate time of departure from Japan in recently migratedPBFT.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sampling and Radioanalysis.
Tuna tissue samples werecollected from PBFT and ellow 
n tuna (YFT;
Thunnusalbacares;
CCLME residents)
5 ,16
captured by recreational sport
shermen. Fish were caught within 300 km of San Diego, CA and landed in San Diego where they were
lleted and frozen forhuman consumption. We sampled 250
500 g of white muscletissue from the dorsal musculature behind the head. Muscletissue was kept on dry ice (
55
°
C) and shipped to Stony Brook University for radioanalysis. Muscle samples were freeze-dried and 65
±
23 g dry wt of white muscle tissue was blendedand combusted at 450
°
C for 4 h. Combustion resulted infurther compactness of the sample, which assured bettercounting e
ciency during
γ 
-radioanalysis (details below). Lossof Cs during com bustion was assumed to be negligible, asshown previously.
 Ash was further ground with a mortar andpestle to achieve a uniform matrix, placed inside plastic jars, andstored at 60
°
C prior to radioanalysis.For
γ 
-radioanalysis of 
134
Cs,
137
Cs, and
40
K we used highpurity germanium detectors (HPGe; Canberra Industries).Sample counting times were adjusted to allow propagatedcounting errors of <10% for
137
Cs (662 keV), <15% for
134
Cs(605 keV), and <3% for
40
K (1461 keV). Most samples werecounted for up to 3 days. Genie 2000 software (Canberra) wasused to analyze the peaks in the energy spectrum. The lowestdetection limits were 0.1 Bq kg
1
for both
134
Cs and
137
Cs and0.9 Bq kg
1
for
40
K. These detection limits were calculated foreach individual
sh muscle sample using the
 well-known blank 
method.
Counting geometry was taken intoconsideration by varying the fullness of the jar when testingstandards made of known quantities of 
75
Se,
134
Cs,
137
Cs, and
40
K emitting over a broad energy spectrum (265, 605, 662, and1461 keV, respectively).
134
Cs and
137
Cs concentrations in tunamuscle samples were decay-corrected to catch dates in theCCLME (Table1). No decay correction was required for
40
due to its long half-life (
1/2
= 1.2
×
10
9
 years).
Age Estimation.
Age (age
est
) was estimated from standardlength (SL;cm) for PBFT and YFT according to Bayli
ff 
et al.
and Wild.
SL was calculated fromcurved fork length (CFL;cm) for PBFTaccording to Farwell
and for YFT according toScida et al.
 When possible we measured the length fromrostrum to operculum (operculum length, or OL, cm) andcurved fork length (CFL, cm) of whole
sh and calculated aregression for PBFT:
= +
CFL 2.8373OL 12.307
(1)
to estimate CFL from OL (Supporting Information (SI)FigureS1). The linear equation had an
2
 value of 0.98 (SIFigure S1).
Back-Calculated Departure Date.
The ratio of radio-active Cs isotopes (
134
Cs:
137
Cs =
) was used to back-calculatethe time at which individual PBFT left the Fukushima-contaminated waters around Japan. This ratio would decreasein PBFT after their departure due to continued exposure to
137
Cs at background levels (1 mBq L
1
) but no
134
Cs in centraland eastern Paci
c waters, and the faster decay rate of 
134
Cs. A model based on that from Madigan et al.
4
 was used to estimatehow 
134
Cs:
137
Cs ratios in PBFT would change over time afterleaving waters around Japan. Brie
 y, eq 2describes theprocesses that impact the change of 
134
Cs:
137
Cs ratio overtime
. These processes are: radioactive decay (
 λ
1
and
λ
2
for
137
Cs and
134
Cs;
1/2
= 30.2 and 2.1 years, respectively) ande
ux (
e
: 0.02 d
1
)
of previously accumulated Cs.
Background
137
Cs in PBFT muscle (measured in pre-Fukushima PBFT) is represented by 
A
(here,
A
= 1 Bq kg
1
dry wt), which is the same for YFT never exposed toFukushima radionuclides, PBFT residentsof the CCLME >1 year, and PBFT before Fukushima (2008).
4
Background
137
Cs(from nuclear weapons testing fallout) in PBFT is a result of uptake of 
137
Cs from seawater and food (collectively,
a
) andloss of previously accumulated
137
Cs (
e
).
4
Since PBFTconcentrations of 
134
Cs and
137
Cs change di
ff 
erently overtime due to di
ff 
erent decay rates and acquisition of weaponsfallout
137
Cs but not
134
Cs after leaving contaminated waters,estimated time since departure (
) will depend not only on theinitial
calculation (
0
) but also on absolute concentrations of 
134
Cs and
137
Cs in PBFT. The contribution of 
137
Cs from weapons fallout (1.0 Bq kg
1
dry wt) will contribute relatively more
137
Cs to the total pool of 
137
Cs in PBFT muscle in PBFTthat acquire low amounts of Cs in contaminated waters.Consequently,
sh that acquire relatively low amounts of 
134
Csand
137
Cs in contaminated waters will have
values thatdecrease more rapidly, with
134
Cs decreasing more rapidly than
137
Cs. In contrast, PBFT that acquire more
134
Cs and
137
Cs incontaminated waters will have slower rates of decrease of 
 , as both
134
Cs and
137
Cs concentrations will decrease at fairlsimilar rates until the
137
Cs concentration decreases to levels where background
137
Cs (
 A
) contributes an appreciableproportion of 
137
Cs to the total pool of 
137
Cs in PBFT muscle:
Environmental Science & Technology
Article
dx.doi.org/10.1021/es4002423
|
Environ. Sci. Technol.
XXXX, XXX, XXX
XXX
C

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