Field Evaluations ofAugmentative Releases of
(Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for Suppression of
Bellows & Perring (Homoptera:Aleyrodidae) Infesting Cotton
Kevin M. Heinz,* James R. Brazzle,† Michael P. Parrella,‡ and Charles H. Pickett§
Biological Control Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2475;
University of California, Cooperative Extension, Kern County, Bakersﬁeld, California 93307;
Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis,California 95616; and
Biological Control Program, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, California 95832
Received September 30, 1998; accepted May 20, 1999
In1992and1993,ﬁeldevaluationswereconductedtodetermine the efficacy of
(Horn)releases for the suppression of
Bellows & Perring infesting cotton in the Imperial Valley of California. Augmentative releases of adultbeetles, totaling 3.5 and 5.5 beetles per plant for 1992and1993,respectively,weremadeintofour0.2-hectarecotton plots and four exclusion cages covering 40cotton plants. Equal numbers of ﬁeld plots and cagesserved as controls for the
releases. Openﬁeld evaluations revealed no signiﬁcant difference inthe whiteﬂy densities between the release and thenonrelease ﬁelds. In addition, no differences in plantgrowth measures were detected in the year that thesedata were collected. Releases of
intowhiteﬂy exclusion cages resulted in a 55% and a 67%decreaseinwhiteﬂydensitiesin1992and1993,respec-tively. Observational data suggested that intraguildpredation on
by the existing predatorfauna may have limited the potential for
to provide biological whiteﬂy control in open ﬁeldplots relative to the levels observed within the cages.Releases of
did not adversely affect popu-lation densities of indigenous parasitoids, suggesting an absence of statistically signiﬁcant, antagonisticpredator–parasitoidinteractions.
augmentation; biological control; migra-tion;interspeciﬁcinteractions;silverleafwhiteﬂy.
Akey pest of many crops grown in the southern thirdoftheUnitedStatesisthesilverleafwhiteﬂy(Perring
Bellows & Perring (Ho-moptera: Aleyrodidae) (
strain B of
1998). In Florida, Texas, Arizona, and California,damage to crops in 1991 and 1992 was estimated at$200 and $500 million, respectively (Henneberry andToscano, 1996). Growers have adjusted agriculturalpractices to cope with the whiteﬂy but costs for insecti-cides to control the pest remain high. Whiteﬂy controlcosts for 1993 were estimated to exceed the $18.9million 1992 costs (Henneberry and Toscano, 1994).Growers in California’s Imperial County spent roughly$12 million in 1996 to protect 49,442 acres of melonsfrom silverleaf whiteﬂy (White, 1998).In addition to its economic costs, reliance on periodicapplications of insecticides for management of
spp. cause other problems. One problem is the develop-ment of widespread resistance and cross-resistance of whiteﬂiestomanycommonlyusedconventionalinsecti-cides, particularly organophosphates and synthetic py-rethroids (Prabhaker
1990; Bloch and Wool, 1994). Resistanceto the insect growth regulators buprofezin and pyri-proxyfenhasalsobeenreported(HorowitzandIshaaya,1994). Resistance to insecticides, concerns about envi-ronmental toxicity (Bascietto
1990), and dangerto worker safety (Maddy
1985; Hock, 1987)mandate the development of alternatives to conven-tional chemical control of whiteﬂy.Biological control has great potential for use againstsilverleaf whiteﬂy, based on successes of biologicalcontrol against other introduced whiteﬂy species andthe abundance of potential biological control agents. InCalifornia, there are at least 8 species of exotic white-ﬂies, of which 4 are managed with the help of biologicalcontrol (DeBach and Rose, 1976; Rose and DeBach,1981; Miklasiewicz and Walker, 1990; Bellows
1992; Metcalf and Metcalf, 1993).Asfor the
complex, many potential natural en-emies have been identiﬁed, including 37 parasitoidspecies, mainly in the genera
Fo¨rster, and 34 predators, in the familiesCoccinellidae and Phytoseiidae (Cock, 1986, 1993; Ger-ling, 1986, 1990).
241–251 (1999) Article ID bcon.1999.0750, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on241
1999 byAcademic Press All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.