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Alternative Energy - Material Matters v3n4

Alternative Energy - Material Matters v3n4



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Published by Sigma-Aldrich
"Light-Driven Generation of Hydrogen
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
Polymer-based Materials for Printed Electronics
Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries"
"Light-Driven Generation of Hydrogen
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
Polymer-based Materials for Printed Electronics
Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries"

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Sigma-Aldrich on Feb 20, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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 Alternative Energy—the way to go
Light-DrivenGeneration of HydrogenPolymer ElectrolyteMembrane Fuel CellsPolymer-based Materialsfor Printed ElectronicsAdvancedLithium Ion Batteries
Alternative Energy
Generation and Storage
Vol. 3, No. 4
Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc.Sigma-Aldrich Corporation
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To request your
subscription to
Material Matters
, please contact us by:Phone:
Attn: Marketing CommunicationsAldrich Chemical Co., Inc.Sigma-Aldrich CorporationP.O. Box 355Milwaukee, WI 53201-9358
International customers, please contact yourlocal Sigma-Aldrich ofce. For worldwide contactinormation, please see back cover.
Material Matters
is also available in PDF ormat onthe Internet at
.Aldrich brand products are sold throughSigma-Aldrich, Inc. Sigma-Aldrich, Inc. warrants thatits products conorm to the inormation contained inthis and other Sigma-Aldrich publications. Purchasermust determine the suitability o the product or itsparticular use. See reverse side o invoice or packingslip or additional terms and conditions o sale.All prices are subject to change without notice.
Material Matters
(ISSN 1933–9631) is a publication o Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc. Aldrich is a member o theSigma-Aldrich Group. © 2008 Sigma-Aldrich Co.
Vol. 3 No. 4
About Our Cover
   I  n   t  r  o   d  u  c   t   i  o  n
Welcome to the fourth issue of
Material Matters
for 2008,focused on ‘Alternative Energy’.Alternative energy may be broadly defined as energy generatedin a way that does not deplete natural resources or harm theenvironment. It is used as an “alternative” to fossil fuels and othernon-renewable energy sources such as coal, oil and natural gas. Itis common knowledge that the use of fossil fuels contributes toglobal warming through the emission of carbon dioxide, and alsopollutes the air, water, and soil. In addition, fossil energy sourcesare not sustainable, i.e. while global energy demand continuesto grow, the world reserves of coal, oil and natural gas are beingdepleted. Currently, the world energy consumption has exceeded400 quadrillion BTUs (4.2 × 10
J) per year. The United Statesalone uses about one-quarter of the energy produced in the world, with an additional29% consumed by the European Union, Japan and S. Korea. Every day, the USA needs20 million barrels of oil, 60 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 3 million tons of coal tocover its existing energy demand.One of the ways currently being explored to satisfy growing energy requirements isthe conversion of solar energy into electricity. This energy can be immediately used topower a broad variety of tools and devices. It can also be stored in chemical form inhydrogen rich chemical substances such as hydrides, or through the use of lithium ionbatteries. The former approach—conversion of solar energy into materials with highhydrogen content such as oil and natural gas—is the way in which fossil fuels formedin nature to begin with; of course that process took millions of years.This issue of
Material Matters
features four articles that are concerned with differentaspects of alternative energy. Researchers at Penn State University highlight conversionof solar energy and water into hydrogen, using a biologically inspired electrochemicalprocess. Hydrogen produced in such a manner could later be used in PEM fuel cellsto generate electricity. Material issues in PEM fuel cells are the subject of the articleby scientists from the US Department of Energy (US DOE) and the Argonne NationalLaboratory. Further ways to enable high efficiency solar power and lighting throughphotochemical generation of energy are discussed by researchers at Plextronics. Finally,scientists affiliated with the Vehicle Technologies Program of the US DOE addressmaterials challenges in advanced lithium ion battery research.Customary to
Material Matters
, each article in this issue is accompanied bySigma-Aldrich
products helpful in the corresponding type of alternative energyresearch. The facing page lists the materials categories that you will find in this issue.Please visit Aldrich Materials Science at
for productinformation. We invite you to send your comments and questions regarding
Material Matters
and materials of interest to
Viktor Balema, Ph.D.Materials ScienceSigma-Aldrich Corporation
The energy of our own star – the sun, is abundant, free and virtually unlimited. Its conversion intoelectricity, which can be used directly or stored in batteries or energy-rich substances such as hydrogen,offers a perfect way to resolve a vast majority of current and future energy issues. The system thatcombines biologically inspired
Photosystem I 
, a 1,6-hexanedithiol molecule shown on the cover, andeither gold or platinum nanoparticles, represents one of the possible ways to capture and convert solarenergy into hydrogen (see article on p. 78) for further use in fuel cells (see article on p. 85) to powerhomes, offices and a variety of electrical and electronic devices.
For questions, product data, or new product suggestions, please contact Aldrich Materials Science at
I  n t  o d  u c  t i   on
Dr. Ragaiy Zidan of Savannah River National Laboratory kindlysuggested that we offer a 1M solution of sodium aluminumhydride in tetrahydrofuran (NaAlH
Aldrich Prod. No.698865
) as a material for alternative energy applications.
Thesolution of NaAlH
in THF is a base-material for advanced energystorage systems. Its electrolysis
creates aluminum hydride (AlH
),with hydrogen content of 10% by weight and a hydrogenrelease temperature of ~100°C. This enables the developmentof low-cost hydrogen storage systems with thermodynamics andkinetics meeting transportation requirements.
(1) Balema, V.P.
Material Matters
, vol
2, 2. (2) Zidan, R. ElectrochemicalReversible Formation of Alane. http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/review08/stp_19_
zidan.pdf (accessed Oct 24, 2008). Patent application led. (3) Read, C.; Thomas, G.;Ordaz, G.; Satyapal, S.
Material Matters
, vol
issue 2
Sodium aluminum hydride solution
[13770-96-2] NaAlH
FW 54.00F: 10
1 M in tetrahydrofuran
density .....................................................................0.905 g/mL, 25 °C
1 L
Joe Porwoll, PresidentAldrich Chemical Co., Inc.
Do you have a compound that you wish Sigma-Aldrich
could list to help materials research?If it is needed to accelerate your research, it matters—please send your suggestion to
and we will be happy to give it careful consideration.
“Your Materials Matter.”
Alternative Energy Products Featured in this Issue
Materials CategoryContentPage
Functionalized Nanoparticles
Gold and silver functionalized nanoparticles
82Bifunctional Materials forSelf-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs)Dithiols, carboxylic acids and other bifunctional materialsfor SAMs82Selected Nanopowdersfor Energy ApplicationsSelected metal and metal oxide nanopowders forenergy applications83Catalyst Materialsfor PEM Fuel CellsCarbon supported, non-carbon supported and unsupportedplatinum group metals catalysts88Membrane Materialsfor PEM Fuel CellsMembranes, solutions, dispersions and other membrane materialsfor fuel cell applications89Electrode Materials forSolid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)Anode and cathode materials for use in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells90Electrolyte Materialsfor Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)Oxide materials for use as electrolytes in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells90Organic Electronic Materials:Plexcore
ProductsElectronic grade semi-conducting and conducting inks96Organic Photovoltaic Materials:Light-Emitters, Dopants andElectron AcceptorsElectron acceptors and sublimed grade organic light-emittersand dopants97Organic Photovoltaic Materials:Indium Tin Oxide/Indium OxideIndium Tin Oxide/Indium Oxide coated slides, PET Sheetsand Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) powders98Select Materialsfor Battery ApplicationsElectrode materials, electrolyte materials and solvents foradvanced Li-batteries103

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