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Vocal Guide

Vocal Guide

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Published by Artist Recording
Vocal Guide
Vocal Guide

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Published by: Artist Recording on Feb 24, 2013
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07/03/2014

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By Andre CAlilhAnnAWith ContriButions By dAniel eBBers And Jon MArC Weiss
 
InTrodUcTIon: Sig chil, Sig...
The Aatmy  Su
Though housed within you, you should think o your voice as a mu-sical instrument. Like any other acoustic instrument, it has a motor(your breath), a vibrating element (your vocal olds, aka vocal cords),and a resonant chamber (throat, oral cavity, nasal cavity). And just aswith any other instrument, proper care and handling is required tomaintain its optimal tone and longevity. O course, your voice hasundamental dierences compared with any other instrument, mostnotably is that it is part o you and your physiology. What aects yourgeneral health can impact the quality o your instrument and yourability to perorm.While singing can be the most simple and natural thing in the world,becoming a great vocalist requires the same dedication, study, prac-tice, and discipline necessary to excel at any musical instrument. Itstarts with a basic understanding o the structures that comprise thevocal instrument, and the mechanics o producing sound.
Vie Puti
 Voice production begins with your breath. When you inhale, the dia-phragm — a large, horizontal muscle below the lungs — lowers, andthe lungs expand and ll with air. When you exhale, air is expelledvia elastic recoil o the lungs and thoracic cavity, aided by the ab-dominal muscles.The larynx houses the vocal cords, and as the air rushes throughthem, the resulting pressure causes them to vibrate hundreds —even thousands — o times per second. The sound this creates isthen shaped by your throat, lips, tongue, palate, and jaw to ormwords and sounds. With healthy individuals, the vocal cords openwhen we are breathing and close when we are voicing, coughing,or swallowing.Next to and above the vocal cords are the alse vocal cords (ventricu-lar olds). Typically, the alse vocal cords don’t vibrate when you’revoicing, but they may come together i you have muscle tensiondysphonia, a airly common condition where excessive muscletension occurs with voice production.
resae
Like all acoustic instruments, your voice has its own special cham-bers or resonating tone. Once a tone is produced by the vibratingvocal cords, it resonates in and through these chambers, includingthe throat, mouth, and nasal cavity. While the area above your nasalcavity (the head) and your chest don’t literally resonate, singers andvocal coaches will oten reer to them as resonant chambers.These dierent chambers are oten described as having dierentcolors or timbres, rom dark (chest) to bright (head/nasal). The great-er command you have o all the colors in the resonant spectrum,the greater your dynamic range o tones, notes, volumes, and sounds.
Head voice:
Soter singing primarily occurs in the head voice (headresonance), which eels as i the sound you were producing is reso-nating in your head.
Nasal (mask) resonance:
Nasal resonance is bright and is generallypart o any well-balanced tone. Combined with the mouth, this cancreate a resonance that is placed orward, or in the mask (the rontpart o your ace).
Chest resonance:
While not precisely resonating in the chest, thesensation is that this tone emanates rom below your throat, provid-ing a rich, dark, deeper tone with power and warmth.
Vie registes a categies
In regard to singing, vocal register generally reers to a particularpart o the vocal range, such as the alsetto, upper, middle, orlower registers.
PAGE 2
the VoCAlist’s Guide to reheArsinG, PerforMinG, And reCordinGAnAtoMy of the VoiCe VoCAl folds
 
 
PAGE 3
There are seven major voice categories, with various sub-types andclasses, recognized across the standard voice classication systems.Women are divided into soprano, mezzo-soprano, and contralto,and men into countertenor, tenor, baritone, and bass.
Soprano:
The highest emale voice, the typical soprano lies betweenmiddle C (C4) and high C (C6). The low extreme or sopranos is B3,and several standard soprano roles call or D6 on the high end.
Mezzo-soprano:
The mezzo-soprano is the middle-range — andmost common — emale voice type. The mezzo-soprano voice liesbetween, and overlaps, the soprano and contralto voices. The typicalmezzo-soprano range is between A3 (the A below middle C) and A5(two octaves up).
Contralto:
The contralto voice is the lowest (and rarest) emale voice,with a range between F3 (the F below middle C) to F5.
Countertenor:
The highest male voice, countertenors generally singin the alsetto register (sometimes using their modal, or speaking,register or the lowest notes). The countertenor ranges rom aboutG3 to E5 or F5.
Tenor:
The tenor is the highest male voice using the modal register.The typical tenor voice lies between C3 (one octave below middleC) to C5, though some tenors can sing up to the second F abovemiddle C.
Baritone:
The most common type o male voice, the baritone rangelies between the bass and tenor ranges, overlapping them both. Thetypical baritone range is rom F2 to F4 (the F above middle C).
Bass:
The lowest male voice, the bass voice lies between E2 to E4(the E above middle C).
PArT 1:Take the time,o it ight...
Voal cae a Maiteae
Maybe it’s true that some elements o being a great vocalist come byway o a blessed, genetic git, but most truly inspiring vocalists putenormous time and energy into their crat — and continue to do sothroughout their careers when they want to endure or the long haul. You might not think o a vocalist as a world-class athlete, but somemedical proessionals are making the case that the demands put onyour voice when singing one to three hours a night is as intense asthose made by a marathon runner on his body. Additional actorssuch as nutrition, smoking, drug use, noisy environments, and propervoice training (or the lack thereo) play a role in your ability to hit thestage night ater night and perorm at your best.
Voal Lessos
Just as an athlete will train, ocus, and warm up or an event, a vocal-ist should consider singing as an endeavor that requires the samepreparation and dedication. And while dierent genres and styles o singing require dierent approaches to the crat, proper techniqueand a knowledge o the vocal process will translate across all stylesand genres.Plus, “The singing voice carries with it an inherent risk, in that youonly get one instrument,” cautions Daniel Ebbers, Associate Proes-sor o Voice at the Conservatory o Music o the University o thePacic. “I you ruin a clarinet or a guitar, you can buy another one,but you can’t get another voice. You don’t get another chance.”Taking voice lessons and studying with a vocal coach obviously costsmoney, notoriously something a lot o musicians
aren’t 
blessed with,but i you want to be challenged, learn how to sing properly, andpreserve your “one instrument,” vocal lessons are worth investing in.“To me, the most important thing is inormation,” explains Ebbers,“to equip my students with as much knowledge as possible. And onthe practical side, they say luck is when preparation meets opportu-nity. I you get to that day when you have to sing, and you have tosing well, would you want to go into that opportunity not knowinganything about your instrument or vocal technique? You wouldn’twant to miss that opportunity because you weren’t prepared.”
 Wamig Up
I you sing without warming up, you can encounter all sorts o problems. Warming up is very much about relaxing and prepar-ing the muscles and mechanisms or what they are about to do,and it is also about getting your mind and body into the fow o breathing correctly.

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Cristinasinger21 added this note
I am a voice teacher...will enjoy reading and sharing this with my students. I learned a lot of this in voice science class in college.
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