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3G On View

3G On View

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Published by Saurabh G
The document contains all you want to know about the 3G technology.It will help you understand the technological implications as well as the advantages of using such a new technology for developing nations
The document contains all you want to know about the 3G technology.It will help you understand the technological implications as well as the advantages of using such a new technology for developing nations

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Published by: Saurabh G on Feb 21, 2009
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05/07/2011

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1
Evolution
Zero Generation (0G – 0.5G)
Mobile radio telephone systems preceded modern cellular mobile telephony technology.Since they were the predecessors of the first generation of cellular telephones, these systems aresometimes referred to as 0G (zero generation) systems. Technologies used in 0G systemsincluded PTT (Push to Talk), MTS (Mobile Telephone System), IMTS (Improved MobileTelephone Service), AMTS (Advanced Mobile Telephone System), OLT (Norwegian forOffentlig Landmobil Telefoni, Public Land Mobile Telephony) and MTD (Swedish abbreviationfor Mobilelefonisystem D, or Mobile telephony system D).
First Generation (1G)
First generation (or 1G) cellular telecommunications were only capable of supporting voicetraffic. 1G was introduced in the early 1980s and was based upon an analog system comprisingFrequency Modulation (FM), Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Frequency DivisionMultiple Access (FDMA). Combining these primary methods of radio transmission andreception, several variants of the first cellular technologies merged to include NMT (Nordisk MobilTelefoni or Nordiska MobilTelefoni-gruppen, Nordic Mobile Telephone in English),AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System), Hicap, CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data, Mobitexand DataTAC.
Second Generation (2G ,2.5G ,2.75G)
 
2G is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. It cannot normally transferdata, such as email or software, other than the digital voice call itself, and other basic ancillarydata such as time and date. Nevertheless, SMS messaging is also available as a form of datatransmission for some standards.2G services are frequently referred as Personal CommunicationsService or PCS in the US. 2G technologies can be divided into
TDMA-based 
and
CDMA-based 
 standards depending on the type of multiplexing used. The main 2G standards are:1)
GSM
(TDMA-based), originally from Europe but used worldwide.2)
IDEN
(TDMA-based), proprietary network used by Nextel in the United States and Telus
 
2
Mobility in Canada .3)
IS-136 aka D-AMPS
, (TDMA-based, commonly referred as simply TDMA in the US), usedin the America .4)
IS-95 aka cdmaOne
, (CDMA-based, commonly referred as simply CDMA in the US), usedin the America and parts of Asia.5)
PDC
(TDMA-based), used exclusively in Japan2.5G is a stepping stone between 2G and 3G cellular wireless technologies. The term "secondand a half generation" is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packet switcheddomain in addition to the circuit switched domain. ETSI first commercially released
 High-Speed Circuit Switched Data
(HSCSD) in 2000 and is the first of many upgrades to GSM. It’s notcommon to see HSCSD placed into a category of cellular generations, but typically we would seeit being placed into 2.5G.
GSM 
inherently offers data throughput of up to 9.6Kbps and mandateserror control in transmission ensuring high-quality voice reception.
 HSCSD
is capable of offeringdata speeds of up to (approximately) 57.6Kbps, which is comparable with most analog modems.The first notable upgrade to characterize the evolution of cellular communications was throughthe introduction of 
General Packet Radio Service
(or GPRS). Essentially, with GPRS we are at2.5G; a true indicator that we are moving towards a better cellular communications experience.GPRS differs to HSCSD in that it utilizes a
 packet-switched 
scheme. While the terms "2G" and"3G" are officially defined, "2.5G" is not. It was invented for marketing purposes only. 2.5Gprovides some of the benefits of 3G (e.g. it is packet-switched) and can use some of the existing2G infrastructure in GSM and CDMA networks.. Some protocols, such as EDGE for GSM andCDMA2000 1x-RTT for CDMA, officially qualify as "3G" services (because they have a datarate of above 144kbps), but are considered by most to be 2.5G services (or 2.75G which soundseven more sophisticated) because they are several times slower than "true" 3G services.2.75G is the term which has been decided on for systems which don't meet the 3G requirementsbut are marketed as if they do (e.g. CDMA-2000 without multi-carrier) or which do, just, meetthe requirements but aren't strongly marketed as such. (e.g. EDGE systems).
 Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution
(or EDGE) was introduced in 2001 and is characterized as 2.75G. Theterm 2.75G has not been officially defined anywhere, but as of 2004 is beginning to be usedquite often in media reports
 
3
Third Generation (3G)
Not long after the introduction of 2G networks, projects began to develop third generation
(3G)
systems. Inevitably there were many different standards with different contenders pushingtheir own technologies. Quite differently from 2G systems, however, the meaning of 3G hasbeen standardized in the IMT-2000 standardization processing. The rate at which newtelecommunication standards are being developed is phenomenal. Alongside the introduction of HSCSD, GPRS and EDGE as standard methods of data connectivity, operators are eager todeliver advanced methods for data-centric applications, such as broadcast quality video Withinthe 3G arena an additional multiplexing technique is used called
Code Division Multiple Access
(CDMA). This forms our third multiplexing scheme where our two previous methods wereFDMA and TDMA. An exception to the appearance of 
CDMA
within 3G is
cdmaOne
; it’swidely deployed in the US and Korea and is classified as a second generation technology. It isdefined by IS-95 and is now superseded by IS-2000 (also called CDMA2000) and is very muchin competition with GSM. One other CDMA variant includes
Universal MobileTelecommunications Service
(UMTS) which is based upon
Wideband 
CDMA (WCDMA); this isperceived as
 
third generation.
 
The services associated with 3G provide the ability to transfer bothvoice data (a telephone call) and non-voice data (such as downloading information, exchangingemail, and instant messaging).
Fourth Generation (4G)
 4G (or 4-G) is short for fourth-generation the successor of 3G and is a wireless accesstechnology. High-speed mobile wireless access with a very high data transmission speed, of thesame order of magnitude as a local area network connection (10 Mbits/s and up). It has beenused to describe wireless LAN technologies like Wi-Fi, as well as other potential successors of the current 3G mobile telephone standards. One of the key expectations from 4G networks is theavailability of high quality audio and video that will render the mobile phone a portableentertainment centre. Higher data transfer rates will also mean that a James Bond style videoconversation might finally be a reality.

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