Mobility in Canada .3)
IS-136 aka D-AMPS
, (TDMA-based, commonly referred as simply TDMA in the US), usedin the America .4)
IS-95 aka cdmaOne
, (CDMA-based, commonly referred as simply CDMA in the US), usedin the America and parts of Asia.5)
(TDMA-based), used exclusively in Japan2.5G is a stepping stone between 2G and 3G cellular wireless technologies. The term "secondand a half generation" is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packet switcheddomain in addition to the circuit switched domain. ETSI first commercially released
High-Speed Circuit Switched Data
(HSCSD) in 2000 and is the first of many upgrades to GSM. It’s notcommon to see HSCSD placed into a category of cellular generations, but typically we would seeit being placed into 2.5G.
inherently offers data throughput of up to 9.6Kbps and mandateserror control in transmission ensuring high-quality voice reception.
is capable of offeringdata speeds of up to (approximately) 57.6Kbps, which is comparable with most analog modems.The first notable upgrade to characterize the evolution of cellular communications was throughthe introduction of
General Packet Radio Service
(or GPRS). Essentially, with GPRS we are at2.5G; a true indicator that we are moving towards a better cellular communications experience.GPRS differs to HSCSD in that it utilizes a
scheme. While the terms "2G" and"3G" are officially defined, "2.5G" is not. It was invented for marketing purposes only. 2.5Gprovides some of the benefits of 3G (e.g. it is packet-switched) and can use some of the existing2G infrastructure in GSM and CDMA networks.. Some protocols, such as EDGE for GSM andCDMA2000 1x-RTT for CDMA, officially qualify as "3G" services (because they have a datarate of above 144kbps), but are considered by most to be 2.5G services (or 2.75G which soundseven more sophisticated) because they are several times slower than "true" 3G services.2.75G is the term which has been decided on for systems which don't meet the 3G requirementsbut are marketed as if they do (e.g. CDMA-2000 without multi-carrier) or which do, just, meetthe requirements but aren't strongly marketed as such. (e.g. EDGE systems).
Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution
(or EDGE) was introduced in 2001 and is characterized as 2.75G. Theterm 2.75G has not been officially defined anywhere, but as of 2004 is beginning to be usedquite often in media reports