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Kenapa Golongan Darah Berbeda

Kenapa Golongan Darah Berbeda

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Published by: silviaemoh on Feb 24, 2013
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05/15/2013

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Coba perhatikan diri kita dan orang yang tepat di sebelah kita, ada sedikit perbedaan yangmungkin kita lihat dalam hal komposisi fisik. Kita dan dia memiliki tangan, kaki dan satu kepala.Tentu, kita berdua memiliki jantung, sepasang paru-paru, ginjal dan lambung. Tapi tentu saja,kita dan dia juga memiliki banyak perbedaan. Salah satunya adalah pgolongan darah.  Setidaknya, ada 4 jenis golongan darah; A, B, AB atau O.Sekarang, Anda mungkin bertanya-tanya kenapa Anda memiliki tipe darah yang berbeda denganorang-orang di sekitar Anda. Yang harus Anda sadari adalah bahwa tubuh Anda memilikiantigen dan antibodi yang berbeda dengan orang lain dalam jenis, kombinasi dan jumlah.Antigen berada di permukaan sel darah merah sedangkan antibodi dalam plasma darah. Antigendan antibodi menentukan jenis darah yang Anda miliki. Genetika atau keturunan juga bisamemainkan faktor besar di dalamnya.Melihat empat golongan darah berdasarkan sistem pengelompokan darah, Anda akan melihatmanifestasi dari prinsip ini. Jika Anda memiliki golongan darah A berarti kombinasinya: antigenA dan antibodi B. Sementara itu, jika Anda memiliki golongan darah B maka itu berarti bahwaAnda memiliki antigen B dan antibodi A. Adapun golongan darah AB, itu berarti bahwa antigenA dan B yang hadir di permukaan sel darah merah tetapi tidak ada antibodi A atau B dalam plasma darah. Golongan darah O berarti tidak ada antigen A maupun B, tetapi memiliki antibodiA dan B.Transfusi darah menjadi sangat penting terutama dalam proses operasi pada kasus yang sangatsensitif seperti bypass jantung dan ekstraksi tumor. Proses melahirkan juga mungkinmemerlukan transfusi darah. Mengetahui jenis darah yang Anda miliki merupakan salah satuinformasi paling penting yang diperlukan dalam bidang medis karena akan memungkinkanfasilitas transfusi.
 
Origin of the Blood Types
One aspect of the wide variety of humans is all the different blood types. The following explanationcovers the main
A
,
B
and
O
blood types 
2
. 
The
A
and
B
blood groups are caused by different antigens (substances which provoke immuneresponses) on the surface of the red blood cells. Their production is under the control of theDNA. The antigens develop from a red blood cell surface precursor called H substance, which iscommon to
A
,
B
and
O
. Type
A
results from the placement of N-acetylgalactosamine by theenzyme type
A
transferase on the H substance. Type
B
results from attachment of galactose to H by Type
B
transferase.Type
O
is the result of a simple point mutation that greatly reduced or destroyed the ability of Type
A
transferase to attach N-acetylgalactosamine to H substance. Note that this is an exampleof 
loss
of information, so is irrelevant to particles-to-people evolution. This ineffective Type
A
 transferase is called circulating protein. The ineffectiveness of type
O
’s circulating protein
depends on the point in the DNA where the mutation occurred, because some type Os attachmore N-acetylgalactosamine to H than others. This sometimes causes discrepancies among blood banks. The mutations probably happened early in human history, since
O
is the most common blood group. Unattached H substance itself is an antigen which results in the rare blood typeBombay or 
O
h
.There is one gene in humans that controls the
ABO
blood type. There are three versions of thegene, or alleles:
A
,
B
, or 
O
. Since the gene is always present as a pair of alleles, with oneinherited from each parent, the possible genetic make-up of any individual is
AA
,
BB
,
AB
,
AO
,
BO
, or 
OO
. The
O
allele is recessive to the
A
or 
B
, meaning that in the presence of the
A
or 
B
 allele, the blood type is determined by the
A
or 
B
allele. That is, an
AO
person has
A
-type blood;a
BO
person has
B
-type blood, whereas only an
OO
person has
O
-type blood. Anyone with
O
-type blood is called a universal donor because their blood lacks the
A
or 
B
antigens so that
O
-type blood can be given to a person with
A
,
B
or 
AB
type blood. If, for example,
A
-type blood isgiven to a person with
B
-type blood, an allergic reaction can result in death of the recipient.For a husband and wife to pass on all alleles to their children, they need to, between them, havethe
A
,
B
, and
O
alleles. So Adam and Eve could have had any of the following genetic make-ups:
AO
and
BO
,
AB
and
OO
,
AB
and
AO
,
AB
and
BO
,
AA
and
BO
or 
BB
and
AO
, that is, anycombination where both parents have all three alleles between them. Another possibility is thatthe
O
gene arose later by mutation as discussed above. If so, the parents would only need to have
A
and
B
between them, so they could both be
AB
, or 
AA
and
AB
,
BB
and
AB
or 
AA
and
BB
.If Adam and Eve were genetically
AO
and
BO
, for example, their children could have had
AB
,
AO
,
BO
or 
OO
genetic make-up, giving
AB
,
A
,
B
, or 
O
blood types. Indeed, about 25% of their children would have been of each type (see the Punnet Square
 — 
below) 
3
. 
A
 
O
 
 
B
 
AB
 
BO
 
O
 
AO
 
OO
 If Adam and Eve had 56 children, as per Jewish tradition, then there would have been about 14of each blood group.
Possible Function of Blood Types
One anti-
creationist asked: ‘What use are blood types, which only make blood transfusions difficult?’
and c
alled the variety a ‘flawed design’. However, the claim of ‘flawed design’ is unscientific unless one
can demonstrate a better design. And the first rhetorical question presumes that just because we areignorant of a use, there can be no use. In fact, it is in principle impossible to prove that an organ isuseless, because there is always the possibility that a use may be found in future.
This has happened with over a hundred alleged useless vestigial organs which are now known to be essential 
4
.The thymus was one gland which was thought to be useless, but now we know thatit is the first organ to produce lymphocytes in the embryo, and where the T lymphocytes are
made. ‘The thymus is
central to the development and function of the immune system
5
.’ Severe
immunodeficiencies result when the thymus is rendered useless or destroyed. This is the main problem with AIDS victims. Their T lymphocytes are destroyed by the virus.Even the appendix, widely thought to be a useless evolutionary vestige, contains lymphatic tissueand has a role in controlling bacteria entering the intestines. It functions in a similar way to thetonsils at the other end of the alimentary canal, and are known to increase resistance to throatinfections, although once also thought to be useless organs
6
. It is also a mistake to assume that there is no use for the blood types. There are immunologicalrelationships between
A
,
B
and H antigens and those of bacteria and vegetable matter and howour bodies respond to invading micro-organisms without destroying self. There also seems to bea relationship between blood type and heart problems (not the claimed Type
A
behaviour relationships). Type
A
blood has more cryoprecipitate which blood banks want. The mutantType
O
blood type seems to predispose people to develop stomach ulcer s
7
.The variety in bloodgroups could also mean that some blood diseases could not destroy the whole population, if the pathogen was adapted to a particular blood type.
Asal Jenis DarahSalah satu aspek dari berbagai manusia adalah semua jenis darah yang berbeda. Penjelasan berikut inimencakup A utama, B dan golongan darah O 2.A dan golongan darah B yang disebabkan oleh antigen yang berbeda (zat yang memprovokasi tanggapanimun) pada permukaan sel darah merah. Produksi mereka di bawah kendali DNA. Antigen berkembangdari prekursor sel darah merah yang disebut H permukaan zat, yang umum untuk A, B dan O. Tipe Ahasil dari penempatan N-asetilgalaktosamin oleh jenis enzim A transferase pada substansi H. Tipe B hasildari lampiran galaktosa ke H dengan Tipe B transferase.

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