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Hydrogen Storage Materials - Material Matters v2n2

Hydrogen Storage Materials - Material Matters v2n2

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Published by Sigma-Aldrich
"System Targets for On-Board Vehicular H2 Storage — U.S. DOE
Dehydrogenation of Ammonia Borane
Metal Borohydrides for H2 Storage
Mechanical Processing in H2 Storage
Protective Nanocoatings for Metal Hydrides
Organic Liquid Storage of Hydrogen
Gas Sorption Analysis Tool
Solid-State NMR of Metal Hydrides"
"System Targets for On-Board Vehicular H2 Storage — U.S. DOE
Dehydrogenation of Ammonia Borane
Metal Borohydrides for H2 Storage
Mechanical Processing in H2 Storage
Protective Nanocoatings for Metal Hydrides
Organic Liquid Storage of Hydrogen
Gas Sorption Analysis Tool
Solid-State NMR of Metal Hydrides"

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Published by: Sigma-Aldrich on Feb 21, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/10/2014

 
2007VOLUME 2NUMBER 2
Hydrogen—the clean and safefuel of the future.
System Targets forOn-Board VehicularH
2
Storage—U.S. DOEDehydrogenation ofAmmonia BoraneMetal Borohydridesfor H
2
StorageMechanical Processingin H
2
StorageProtective Nanocoatingsfor Metal HydridesOrganic LiquidStorage of HydrogenGas SorptionAnalysis ToolSolid-State NMR ofMetal Hydrides
TM
Hydrogen Storage Materials
 
   s     i   g   m   a  -   a     l     d   r     i   c     h .   c   o   m
Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc.Sigma-Aldrich Corporation
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Material Matters
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Material Matters
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.AldrichbrandproductsaresoldthroughSigma-Aldrich,Inc.Sigma-Aldrich,Inc.warrantsthatitsproductsconormtotheinormationcontainedinthisandotherSigma-Aldrichpublications.Purchasermustdeterminethesuitabilityotheproductoritsparticularuse.Seereversesideoinvoiceorpackingsliporadditionaltermsandconditionsosale.Allpricesaresubjecttochangewithoutnotice.
Material Matters
(ISSN1933–9631)isapublicationoAldrichChemicalCo.,Inc.AldrichisamemberotheSigma-AldrichGroup.©2007Sigma-AldrichCo.
Vol.  No. 
About Our Cover
Safe and environmentally friendly storage of hydrogen contributes a major challenge for a viableHydrogen Economy. Regardless of the way in which the Hydrogen Economy is implemented, storing hydrogenon-board a vehicle—a car, an aircraft or a ship—is crucial for its realization. Solids are among the safest andmost efficient media capable of storing significant amounts of hydrogen and releasing it upon demand. Ourcover illustrates a schematic of a solid hydrogen storage material and possible applications on land, sea, andin space.
Portion of the cover image was adapted from “Hydrogen Storage.”
MRS Bulletin
Vol. 7, No. 9 (00)Reproduced by permission of the
MRS Bulletin
.
Introduction
For more than a decade, hydrogen as an alternative to traditional energy sources suchas oil and natural gas has been the focus of research and development efforts in alltechnologically advanced countries of the world. It is strongly believed that hydrogencan help to address the growing demand for energy and slow down global climatechange. In fact, hydrogen can be produced from a variety of sources including fossilfuels, renewables and water (by means of nuclear, wind or solar energy). It is non-toxicand, as an energy carrier, extremely environmentally benign since water is the onlyexhaust product when hydrogen is converted into energy.Despite obvious benefits, an immediate incorporation of hydrogen into the worldeconomy faces a number of challenges. Unlike oil and natural gas, hydrogen has nolarge-scale infrastructure supporting its transportation. Although it is routinely usedby chemical and refining industries, the cost of hydrogen storage and delivery is toohigh for many energy applications, thus impeding the introduction of the HydrogenEconomy in which energy is stored and transported using hydrogen as a majorenergy carrier.The Hydrogen Economy Infrastructure is comprised of five key elements—Production,Delivery, Storage, Conversion, and Applications—which are in different stages oftechnological advancement.
ApplicationsStorageConversionDeliveryProduction
While hydrogen production and conversion are already technologically feasible, itsdelivery and storage face serious challenges. For example, due to possible hydrogenembrittlement of steel, existing natural gas transmission systems may be unsuitablefor the transportation of pure hydrogen gas. Therefore, other options, such asblending with natural gas, a compressed gas or cryogenic liquid delivery as well asalternative hydrogen carriers (methanol, ethanol, and other organic liquids), are beingconsidered. Currently, none of the options in the market satisfy the needs of endusers, which explains the growing interest and investment in hydrogen energy relatedresearch and development.Materials-based approaches to hydrogen storage using ammonia borane, hydrides,amides, composite materials, metal-organic frameworks, organic molecules, etc. arebeing explored extensively. In this thematic issue of
Material Matters
, the state-of-the-art in hydrogen storage is presented. Leading experts from the U.S. Departmentof Energy, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, General Electric Global Research,Sigma-Aldrich, Louisiana Tech University, Asemblon, Inc., Hy-Energy, Inc., and theCalifornia Institute of Technology discuss key aspects of hydrogen storage technologiesfrom goals and targets, materials and processing, to performance evaluation andcharacterization techniques.Also featured are Sigma-Aldrich products designed to accelerate your research toadvance the Hydrogen Economy. We invite your comments, questions and suggestionsabout
Material Matters
and materials of interest to you:
matsci@sial.com
.Viktor Balema, Ph.D.Materials ScienceSigma-Aldrich Corporation
   I  n   t  r  o   d  u  c   t   i  o  n
 
For questions, product data, or new product suggestions,please contact the Materials Science team at matsci@sial.com.
 O d  e : . 8  0  0 . 3  5 . 3  0  0   e c ni   c  al   S  evi   c  e : . 8  0  0 . 3 . 8  3 
 On- o a d V ei   c  ul   aH
  S  t  o a g e
Dr. Carole Read, Dr. George Thomas,Ms. Grace Ordaz, and Dr. Sunita Satyapal*U.S. Department of Energy, Hydrogen Program
Introduction
The performance of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles must becomparable or superior to today’s gasoline vehicles in orderto achieve widespread commercial success. In the NorthAmerican market, an on-board hydrogen storage technologythat allows a driving range of more than 300 miles is criticalto meet consumer requirements for most light-duty vehicles.By translating vehicle performance requirements into storagesystem needs, DOE has described technical targets for 2010and 2015. These targets are based on equivalency to currentgasoline storage systems in terms of weight, volume, cost,and other operating parameters. The DOE hydrogen storagesystem targets help guide researchers by defining systemrequirements in order to achieve commercially viable hydrogenstorage technologies.
On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage Targets
On-board vehicular hydrogen storage system performancetargets were developed by the DOE through the FreedomCAR& Fuel Partnership.
1
These performance targets are applicationdriven, based on achieving similar performance and costspecifications as commercially available gasoline storagesystems for light-duty vehicles. The storage system includesall of the hardware (e.g. tank, valves, regulators, piping,mounting brackets, insulation, added cooling capacity, thermalmanagement and any other balance-of-plant components) inaddition to any storage media and a full charge of hydrogen.
Table 1
shows a subset of the DOE hydrogen storage systemtargets for 2010.
2–4
The 2010 targets would allow somevehicles to achieve a driving range of 300 miles for earlymarket penetration. The system volumetric capacity targetincludes a 20% penalty for storage systems that are notconformable to the existing packaging space currently utilizedby conventional gasoline tanks. Even more challenging targetshave been identified for the 2015 timeframe to enable therequired driving range for the full range of light-duty vehiclesin the North American market.
Table 1.
Excerpt of U.S. DOE hydrogen storage system performance targets.
Storage Parameter010 TargetSystem Gravimetric Capacity:
Usable, specific-energy from H
2
 (net useful energy/max system mass)2 kWh/kg(0.06 kg H
2
 /kg systemor 6 wt.%)
System Volumetric Capacity:
Usable energy density from H
2
 (net useful energy/max system volume)1.5 kWh/L(0.045 kg H
2
 /L system)
Durability/Operability
Operating ambient temperatureMin/max delivery temperatureCycle life (1/4 tank to full)Min delivery pressure from tank;FC=fuel cell, ICE=internalcombustion engine–30/50 °C (sun)–40/85 °C1000 Cycles4 FC/35 ICE Atm (abs)
Charging/Discharging Rates
System fill time (for 5 kg H
2
)Min full flow rateTransient response 10%–90%and 90%–0%3 min0.02 (g/s)/kW0.75 s
The DOE storage targets assume a factor of 2.5 to 3 inimproved efficiency for the vehicle’s fuel cell power plant overtoday’s gasoline ICE vehicle. Assuming the efficiency gains, it isestimated that on-board capacities in the range of5–13 kg of hydrogen (1 kg hydrogen ~1 gallon of gasolineenergy equivalent) would satisfy the needs of the range oftoday’s light-duty fuel cell vehicles.Much emphasis has been placed on meeting the volumetricand gravimetric targets. While this is central, it must benoted that transient performance must also be achieved bythe storage system from “full” tank to “almost depleted.”Two key targets noted in Table 1 are the system fill timeand the minimum full flow rate. The system fill time, for allmethods that involve an exotherm upon hydrogen filling,is strongly dependent upon the thermodynamic propertiesof the materials (e.g. hydride formation enthalpy or heat ofadsorption) and the efficiency of the thermal managementsystem for heat removal and rejection. For example, in orderto fill a tank with 8 kg of hydrogen in 5 minutes, a materialwith a heat of adsorption of 30 kJ/mol will generate heatat a rate of 400 kW. This heat will need to be removedand rejected between the vehicle and the filling station.Conversely, an 80 kW power demand by the fuel cellcorresponds to a minimum full flow rate of hydrogen of1.6 g/s, based on the DOE target of 0.02 g/s/kW. Formaterials
1
approaches, this hydrogen release rate must beachieved (ideally) at temperatures that can use the waste heatfrom the PEM fuel cell power plant (e.g. less than 80 °C) overthe entire composition range of the material.In summary, all targets are application driven and not basedupon a particular method or technology for storing hydrogen.For commercially acceptable system performance, the targetsmust be attained simultaneously. For material approaches, it isimportant to remember that in order to achieve system-levelcapacities the gravimetric and volumetric capacities of thematerial alone must clearly be higher than the system-leveltargets. Recent system developments suggest that, dependingon the material and on the system design, material capacitiesmay need to be a factor of up to 2 times higher than systemcapacity targets.
5
U.S. Department of Energy’s System Targets forOn-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage
*corresponding author

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