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Bonding and Structure

Bonding and Structure

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Published by Rija Mughal
For Olevel Students
Chemistry
For Olevel Students
Chemistry

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Rija Mughal on Feb 24, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/24/2013

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1
Bonding and Structure
 Nuclear model of an atom
Particle
 
Symbol Relative mass Charge
 proton p 1 +1neutron n 1 0electron e 1/1836 -1
 
Proton number 
: number of protons in an atom
 
Nucleon numbe
r: number of protons + number of neutrons
 
Number of electrons = number of protons
 
 
Isotopes
: atoms of the same element with same proton number but differentnumber of neutrons
 
isotopes have slightly different physical properties but have identicalchemical properties as they have the same number and arrangement of electrons
Valence electrons:
the electrons in the outermost shell
 
used to form chemical bonds
 
2
Electronic Configuration
 
Electrons are placed in orbits.
 
First shell contains maximum 2 electrons. Second shell and so and so for hasmaximum of 8 electrons.
 
To write electronic configuration we write as n.n.n.... where first n denotes thefirst shell, second the second shell and so and so for.
 
E.g. Sulfur has electronic configuration of 2.8.6The valence electrons is the number of electrons of the outermost shell.
 
Sulphur has 6 valence electrons.
Relation with Periodic Table
 
Elements in same horizontal row:
Period
 
 
Elements in same vertical column:
Group
 
 
Group 1 has 1 valency
 
Group 2 has 2 valency
 
Group 3 has 3 valency and so on.
 
Group 0 has full valency which makes it having stable electronicconfiguration.Down the group the number of shells increases.
Structure of Matter 
 
a. Atom:
Smallest particle of an element
b. Molecule
: group of two or more atoms chemically joined together, e.g. chlorinemolecule has 2 chlorine atoms
c. Element:
Element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical nor physical methods.
 
3
Classifying elements
 
 
Classifying by state. E.g. some elements are solids, some liquids, some gases.
 
Classifying by metals and non-metals. E.g. most elements are metals, semi-metals are metalloids (having properties of metals & non-metals), some are non-metals
 
Classifying by periodicity.From left-right elements change from metal to non-metal
d. Compound:
substance containing 2 or more elements chemically joined together e.g. Magnesium is an element; oxygen is an element
 –
they can only be burnt to formmagnesium oxide compound.
Composition of compounds
 
 
Ions or molecules make up compounds
 
Ions are atoms having electrical charge
 
E.g. NaCl made up of 2 ions; positively charged Na, negatively charged Cl.
e. Mixtures
: contains 2 or more substances not chemically joined together. e.g.seawater is made up of water and NaCl (salt); oxygen in air varies
Compounds vs Mixtures
 

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