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the anatomy fourth lec..pdf

the anatomy fourth lec..pdf

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Anatomy 4
Anatomy 4

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Published by: Mohammad Jamal Owesat on Feb 24, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/16/2013

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 1
 
 2
The SKULL 
Air Sinuses:
means the rooms or spaces filled with air within the bones of the skullthose which we refer to as
Paranasal sinuses
. Paranasal sinuses actually is not a correctscientific term because when we look to its meaning
“para means around”.
The correctscientific name is
air sinuses
because those are spaces filled with air but since most of them are located around the nasal area and opening into the nose, they refer to them as
paranasal sinuses
. The only exception is one of them which is
para acoustic
or 
paraauditory
that is located around the ear and it opens into the middle ear (the mastoid air cells). If you put your finger and palpate behind the auricle of the ear, you will feel the bony prominence
“the
 
mastoid process of temporal bone” if you fracture it from inside
itopens usually into the middle ear .So these are air sinuses, all of them are paranasal except one which is  para acoustic.  In general they started to use the term paranasal to describe them all including themastoid air cells. The word itself comes from that these sinuses are around the nose and they open there
, so their definition is they are air containing spaces within the skull bones “ moreaccurate” or within the cranial bones
. They are lined with the same epithelium lining therespiratoy system which is
Psudostratified columnar epithelium.
 
 
The function of these air sinuses:
Until now there’s no 100% sure function for these sinuses
1)
 
To reduce the skull weight:
(
the most speculated expected func
tion)the skull is based on the vertebral column and the vertebral column has intervertebraldisks , so to reduce the pressure on the vertebral column we empty the skull bonesfrom inside and fill them with air.
 
 3
2)
 
Voice modification:
They consider them sometimes
()
Thisfunctions comes from the idea that when you have an inflammation in thesesinuses
“sinusitis”
( )
you will see that the sound of the speaker  becomes different . So they have something related to the voice production and thetone of the voice.
 3)
 
Thermal Insulation effect :
During the winter, when you exhale you exhale a hotair so you lose its temperature and then you inhale a cold air 
, so what’s happening
there that is when you exhale part of this warm air will get into these sinuses and
keep the area of the head warm that’s how you keep the temperature .
 
The sinuses are :
 
The maxillary sinuses (the biggest one) :
They are two sinuses (left & right) found within the body of the maxillary bones. Theyare pyramidal in shape. They open into the middle meatus which is an area on the lateralwall of the nasal cavity.

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