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Deposition of Ceramic and Hybrid Materials - Material Matters v1n3

Deposition of Ceramic and Hybrid Materials - Material Matters v1n3

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Published by Sigma-Aldrich
"Chemical Deposition Techniques in Materials Design
Savannah ALD System
Sol-Gel Science for Ceramic Materials
Hermetic Barrier Using Vinyl Triethoxysilane (VTEOS)
Silicon-Based Passive and System-in-Package Integration
Vacuum Deposited Non-Precious Metal Catalysts for PEM Fuel Cells"
"Chemical Deposition Techniques in Materials Design
Savannah ALD System
Sol-Gel Science for Ceramic Materials
Hermetic Barrier Using Vinyl Triethoxysilane (VTEOS)
Silicon-Based Passive and System-in-Package Integration
Vacuum Deposited Non-Precious Metal Catalysts for PEM Fuel Cells"

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Published by: Sigma-Aldrich on Feb 21, 2009
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05/10/2014

 
2006VOLUME 1NUMBER 3
sigma-aldrich.com 
Indispensable in Space and on Earth – ceramic flms in action.
Chemical DepositionTechniques in MaterialsDesignSavannah ALD SstemSol-Gel Science forCeramic MaterialsHermetic Barrier UsingVinl Triethoxsilane(VTEOS)Silicon-Based Passiveand Sstem-in-PackageIntegrationVacuum Deposited Non-Precious Metal Catalstsfor PEM Fuel Cells
TM
Deposition o Ceramic and Hybrid Materials
 
   s     i   g   m   a  -   a     l     d   r     i   c     h .   c   o   m
Vol. 1 No. 3
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About Our Cover
The need or ilms and coatings is ubiquitous in the technological age we live. For example, ilms servingas humidity barriers orm an essential part o microelectronics, micro-electromechanical systems andenergy conversion devices. The cover depicts a molecule o vinyl triethoxysilane (VTEOS) that could beused to make a barrier ilm by chemical deposition. VTEOS is a multiunctional molecule that enables thegeneration o a hybrid silicon oxide ilm with polymerizable vinyl groups; the inorganic content is designedto be the barrier, while the hydrophobic, organic content repels water and ills porosity; or more details,please reer to the article by the Rutgers research group on page 11. As alluded to on the cover, such ailm could be used to seal the elements o solar panels on a geosynchronous satellite or protection romthe external environment.
Introduction
Welcome to the third issue o
Material Matters
TM
. This issue ocuses on chemicaldeposition techniques and their application in electronics and alternative energy.An introduction and comparison o chemical vapor deposition and solution depositionapproaches to ilm abrication is given by Dr. Balema o Sigma-Aldrich
TM
MaterialsScience. Scientists rom Cambridge NanoTech discuss Chemical Vapor Deposition(CVD) and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), as well as advantages o the SavannahALD system. Dr. Young rom the US Army Research Laboratory highlights basics osol-gel science or ceramic materials. The group o Pro. Klein rom Rutgers Universitypresents a paper on the development o a hermetic barrier using vinyl triethoxysilane(VTEOS) via Sol-Gel Processing. Dr. Roozeboom rom Philips and Pro. Kessels romthe University o Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands, discuss the suitability o atomiclayer deposition in the abrication o Si-based integrated passives and System-in-Package integration. Finally, researchers rom the 3M Company led by Dr. Atanasoskiand Dr. O’Neill report on the use o vacuum deposition in the preparation o electrodematerials or uel cells. Products that accelerate your research in the undamental andapplied science o chemical deposition are highlighted. We invite your comments,questions and suggestions about
Material Matters
TM
and materials o interest to you:
matsci@sial.com
.
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 O d  e : . 8  0  0 . 3  5 . 3  0  0   e c ni   c  al   S  evi   c  e : . 8  0  0 . 3 . 8  3 
3
 C  emi   c  al  D e p o s i   t i   on e c ni   q u e s 
Materials with a layer thickness below 1 µm are calledthin ilms, while thicker layers, especially those exceedingdimensions o a transistor in an electronic chip, are deinedas thick ilms. Both thin and thick ilms play an exceptionallyimportant role as elements o electronic and optical devices,computer memory chips, and in other related applications.Additionally, in the case o ceramic ilms, properties such aschemical resistivity and hardness enable their use as coatingson substrate materials and cutting tools or protection againstcorrosion, oxidation, and wear.Typically, CVD/ALD techniques are methods o choice orthe deposition o thin ilms on inorganic substrates, whilesolution-based sol-gel approaches are considered when thickilms or nano-powders are desired. Also, lower equipmentcost and reasonably good conormality o coatings may makesol-gel a low-cost alternative to CVD/ALD. However, the ALDapproach may be required or the preparation o uniormconormal ilms on complex suraces such as those with highaspect ratios.Usually, the nature o the deposition process determines theway in which the thickness o the ilm is controlled. Thus, inconventional CVD, the ilm growth depends on the depositiontime, while in ALD it is controlled by the number o depositioncycles.
1-3
In sol-gel processing, the ilms are created using twomajor approaches – spin coating or dip coating. In the irstcase, the substrate is spun at an angular speed
ω 
and theprecursor (sol) is directed onto its surace along the rotationaxis. The thickness (
h
) o the created ilms depends on acomplex combination o the sol’s properties and the rotationspeed o the substrate. In practice, they can be predictedusing a semi-empirical ormula
h
= A
ω 
Β
 where A and B are empirical coeicients. The dip coatingprocess consists o the successive dipping and withdrawal othe substrate in and out o the solution. The thickness o theilm obtained in one dipping-withdrawal cycle is determined
8
 by the properties o the solution, i.e. viscosity (
η
), density (
ρ
),surace tension (
σ
) and the withdrawal speed (
 n
) :
h
= 0.945{(
 nη
)
2/3
 / (g
ρ
)
1/2
σ
1/6
}While CVD/ALD techniques produce thin ilms o highuniormity and metal purity, sol-gel processing provides aunique and simple approach to tuning the ilm’s chemicalcomposition and morphology. Sol-gel processing can also oera less expensive alternative to CVD/ALD, especially i in situdoping is required.An example, when solution processing has been usedsuccessully as an alternative to CVD/ALD was in thepreparation o silicon thin-ilm transistors where thedeposition o a polycrystalline silicon used a liquid precursor,cyclopentasilane (Si
5
H
10
).
9
The grain size in the ilms obtainedwere ound to be as low as 300 nm, comparable to that orilms typically prepared by CVD. Dr. Viktor P. BalemaSigma-AldrichMaterials ScienceDuring the last decade, chemical deposition techniques haveplayed an exceptionally important role in the design andmanuacture o novel advanced devices. Physical depositiontechniques, such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), physicalvapor deposition (PVD) or sputtering, have been used orthese applications. However, they suer rom limitations suchas poor conormality, low throughput, restricted directionalvariation, and reduced compositional control. All o theseissues can and have been addressed using chemical depositiontechniques which oer additional advantages such as ultra-thin ilm growth. This is especially the case when layeredinorganic materials are assembled in order to create anelectronic chip or to modiy the surace o a tool or improvedperormance and durability. Currently, two groups o dierent,yet related, techniques dominate the ield. The irst groupcomprising Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and AtomicLayer Deposition (ALD) uses a gas phase to transport volatilemolecules to the surace serving as a substrate. The secondgroup o deposition techniques, called Chemical SolutionDeposition or Sol-Gel Processing, uses a liquid phase as themass transer media.There is a undamental resemblance between these twogroups - the way that the inal material is created. In bothcases, molecules o chemical compounds serving as precursorsare delivered to the substrate surace and chemically modiiedto obtain the desired ilm. It should be noted, however, thatthe chemical transormations o the precursor in the caseo CVD/ALD can occur in the gas phase and at the gas-solid interace, while in sol-gel processing it is carried out insolution (
Figure 1
). In the CVD/ALD approach, the chemicalmodiication o the precursor is usually achieved via thermalconversion o precursor molecules and/or their reactions withmolecules o other volatile precursors, or reactive gases suchas oxygen or hydrogen.
1-3
Sol-gel processing consists o asequence o chemical transormations in solution and solid-state. They include ormation o a colloidal suspension in anappropriate solvent (sol), gelation (gel), evaporation o thesolvent (drying), and thermal treatment (sintering).
4-7
Sol
Gel
Xerogel
Film
Precursor(s)
ALDCVDALDALDCVDCVDSinteringDryingGelation
Chemical DepositionSolutionVacuum
Figure 1
. Schematic illustrating chemical deposition o ceramic ilms.
Chemical Deposition Techniques in Materials Design

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