European Scientific Journal January 2013 edition vol.9, No.3 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431
168Baking of cake consist of three different steps. In the initial step, batter expansion andmoisture loss occurs which is followed by further moisture loss and volume rise reaching to amaximum final step where air pockets are captured inside a cake The tiny air bubbles in thebatter will only be released into the aqueous phase when fat melts during baking. These airbubbles will grow in size when the leavening gas is released during baking from thedecomposing baking powder. This leavens the product until its structure is set when thestarch in the batter gelatinizes and forms a starch gel (Sahi
2004). The aim of this review is to publish scientific information in cake flour to be an available foranyone in the world who is searching for cake flour which is too important for cake making.
The best cakes are obtained from a low-protein flour (7-9%) to give soft cakes. It isalmost named as soft flour which is pure endosperm, small in particle size and a little of starch damage. Globally cake flour are producing by three ways; milling of soft wheat,milling of mixture of soft and hard wheats. In some countries that do not have the existenceof soft wheat flour, cake flour produced from milling of hard wheat under various tradenames (as in Jordan). Good milling skills can help to achieve cake standard characteristics,but obviously only if the wheat is already of the appropriate quality. The flour propertiesoften depend on the experience of the millers, wheat varieties and composition that affectedand determined the extraction rate, particle size, protein and ash (Cauvain & Cyster
1996;Cauvain &Young, 2006; Edmund
2008; Al-Dmoor, 2012).Cake flour is low ash and low protein content produced for best cake quality bymilling technology of soft as well as hard wheat that is free of bran and wheat germ. Softwheat flours are usually weak flour and low in water absorption. Also don’t require strongmixing or long mixing time when working with a batter or a dough system for resultingproducts possesses qualities such as tenderness, softness, crispness, and good texture. Thegeneral composition for typical cake flour are water 14.5%, proteins 7 – 8%, starch 72 – 74%,sugars 1 – 2 % lipids 0.4 - 0.6 % cellulose 0.1 % and minerals 0.2 - 0.5%. Extraction rate forcake flour production is 50 % mostly are applied in flour milling (Edmund
2008; Al-Dmoor, 2012).Al-Dmoor (2012) studied the properties of for 10 cake flour samples which oftenproduced from one or mix of imported source of hard wheat in Jordan. The projects identifyand advise about the averages requirements, specification of cake flour.The average results of include ; Extraction rate %, Protein%, Moisture %, Ash %, Wet gluten%, Dry gluten %,
Gluten Index, α amylase, Acidity %, Damaged starch, Particles size are ; 51.66, 8.82, 14, 0.5,