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Elements

Elements

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Elements
Elements

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Published by: Dan Alexis Morco Arinzana on Feb 25, 2013
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Aluminium
 
PROPERTIES
 Aluminium is a relatively soft, durable, lightweight,ductileandmalleablemetalwith appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surfaceroughness. It is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite. A fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector (approximately 92%) of visible lightand an excellentreflector (as much as 98%) of medium and far infraredradiation. Theyield strengthof pure aluminium is 7
 –
11MPa,whilealuminium alloyshave yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa.
  Aluminium hasabout one-third thedensityandstiffnessof steel.It is easilymachined,cast,drawnandextruded.   Aluminium atoms are arranged in aface-centered cubic(fcc) structure. Aluminium has astacking-fault energyof approximately 200 mJ/m
2
.
  Aluminium is a goodthermalandelectrical conductor,having 59% the conductivity of copper, both thermal and electrical, while having only 30% of copper's density. Aluminium is capable of being asuperconductor,with asuperconducting critical temperature of 1.2Kelvinand a critical magnetic field of about 100gauss(10 milliteslas).
DISCOVERY
 AncientGreeksandRomansused aluminium salts as dyeing mordants and as astringents for dressing wounds;alumis still used as astyptic.In 1761,Guyton de Morveausuggested calling the base alum
alumine.
 In 1808,Humphry Davyidentified the existence of a metal base of alum, which he at first termed
alumium
andlater 
aluminum
(seeetymology section,below).The metal was first produced in 1825 in an impure form byDanishphysicist and chemistHans Christian Ørsted.He reactedanhydrousaluminium chloridewithpotassiumamalgam,yielding a lump of metal looking similar to tin.
Friedrich Wöhler was aware of these experiments and cited them, but after redoing theexperiments of Ørsted he concluded that this metal was pure potassium. He conducted a similar experiment in1827 by mixing anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium and yielded aluminium.
 Wöhler is generallycredited with isolating aluminium(Latin
alumen
, alum), but also Ørsted can be listed as its discoverer .
 Further,Pierre Berthier discovered aluminium in bauxite ore and successfully extracted it.
 FrenchmanHenriEtienne Sainte-Claire Devilleimproved Wöhler's method in 1846, and described his improvements in a book in1859, chief among these being the substitution of sodium for the considerably more expensive potassium.
 Deville likely also conceived the idea of theelectrolysisof aluminium oxide dissolved in cryolite;Charles Martin HallandPaul Héroultmight have developed the more practical process after Deville.
USES
 Aluminium is the most widely usednon-ferrous metal.
 Global production of aluminium in 2005 was 31.9million tonnes. It exceeded that of any other metal exceptiron(837.5 million tonnes).
 Forecast for 2012 is42
 –
45 million tonnes, driven by rising Chinese output.
  Aluminium is almost always alloyed, which markedly improves its mechanical properties, especially whentempered.For example, the commonaluminium foilsand beverage cans are alloys of 92% to 99% aluminium.
 The mainalloyingagents are copper,zinc,magnesium,manganese,andsilicon(e.g.,duralumin)  and the levels of these other metals are in the range of a few percent by weight.
 
Silicon
PROPERTIES
Silicon is a solid at room temperature, withrelatively high melting and boiling points of approximately 1,400 and 2,800 degreesCelsius respectively.
 Interestingly, siliconhas a greater densityin a liquid state than asolid state. It does not contract when itfreezes like most substances, but expands,similar to how ice is less dense than water and has less mass per unit of volume than liquid water. With a relatively highthermal conductivityof 149 W·m
−1
·K
−1
, silicon conducts heat well and as a result is not often used to insulate hot objects.In itscrystallineform, pure silicon has a gray color and a metallic luster. Likegermanium,silicon is rather strong, very brittle, and prone to chipping. Silicon, like carbon and germanium, crystallizes in adiamond cubiccrystal structure,with a lattice spacing of approximately 0.5430710 nm (5.430710Å).
DISCOVERY
 Attention was first drawn to silica as the possible oxide of a fundamentalchemical elementbyAntoine Lavoisier,in 1787.
  After an attempt to isolate silicon in 1808, Sir Humphry Davy proposed the name"silicium" for silicon, from the Latin
silex 
,
silicis
for flint, flints, and adding the "-ium" ending because hebelieved it was a metal.
 In 1811,Gay-LussacandThénardare thought to have prepared impureamorphous silicon,through the heating of recently isolatedpotassiummetal withsilicon tetrafluoride,but they did not purify and characterize the product, nor identify it as a new element.
 Silicon was given its present name in 1817 byScottish chemistThomas Thomson.He retained part of Davy's name but added "-on" because he believed thatsilicon was anonmetalsimilar toboronandcarbon.
 In 1823,Berzeliusprepared amorphous silicon using approximately the same method as Gay-Lussac (potassium metal and potassium fluorosilicate), but purifyingthe product to a brown powder by repeatedly washing it.
  As a result he is usually given credit for theelement's discovery.
 USES
Most silicon is used industrially without being separated into the element, and indeed often withcomparatively little processing from natural occurrence. Over 90% of the Earth's crust is composed of silicate minerals.Many of these have direct commercial uses, such as clays, silica sand and mostkinds of building stone. Thus, the vast majority of uses for silicon are as structural compounds, either as the silicate minerals or silica (crude silicon dioxide). For example, silica is an important part of ceramic brick. Silicates are used in making Portland cement which is used in building mortar andstucco, but more importantly combined with silica sand, and gravel (usually containing silicateminerals like granite), to make the concrete that is the basis of most of the very largest industrialbuilding projects of the modern world. 
 Silicate minerals are also in whiteware ceramics, an important class of products usually containingvarious types of fired clay (natural aluminum silicate). An example is porcelain which is based onsilicate mineralkaolinite.Ceramics include art objects, and domestic, industrial and building products.Traditional quartz-based soda-lime glass also functions in many of the same roles.More modern silicon compounds also function as high-technology abrasives and new high-strengthceramics based upon(silicon carbide), and insuperalloys. 
 
Krypton
PROPERTIES
Krypton is characterized by severalsharp emission lines(spectralsignatures) the strongest being greenand yellow.
 It is one of the productsof uraniumfission.
 Solidifiedkryptonis white andcrystallinewith a face-centeredcubiccrystal structure,which is a common property of all noble gases (except helium, with a hexagonal close-packed crystal structure).
 DISCOVERY
Krypton was discovered in Britain in 1898 bySir William Ramsay,a Scottish chemist,andMorris Travers,an English chemist, in residue left from evaporating nearly allcomponents of liquid air.Neonwas discovered by a similar procedure by the sameworkers just a few weeks later .
 William Ramsay was awarded the 1904Nobel Prizein Chemistryfor discovery of a series of noble gases,including krypton.
 USES
Krypton was discovered in Britain in 1898 bySir William Ramsay,a Scottish chemist,andMorris Travers,an English chemist, in residue left from evaporating nearly allcomponents of liquid air.Neonwas discovered by a similar procedure by the sameworkers just a few weeks later .
 William Ramsay was awarded the 1904Nobel Prizein Chemistryfor discovery of a series of noble gases,including krypton.
 

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