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Clanship and Contract in Northern Somaliland by: I.M. lewis

Clanship and Contract in Northern Somaliland by: I.M. lewis

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Clanship and Contract in Northern Somaliland by: I.M. lewis
Clanship and Contract in Northern Somaliland by: I.M. lewis

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International African Institute
Clanship and Contract in Northern SomalilandAuthor(s): I. M. LewisReviewed work(s):Source:
Africa: Journal of the International African Institute,
Vol. 29, No. 3 (Jul., 1959), pp.274-293Published by:
on behalf of the
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This content downloaded on Fri, 25 Jan 2013 14:57:34 PMAll use subject toJSTOR Terms and Conditions
 
[274]
CLANSHIP ANDCONTRACTINNORTHERNSOMALILAND'
LM. LEWIS
TN this article IanalyseSomalipoliticalinstitutions in termsofclanship(tol)andcontract(heer).Bythelatter term Imean theexplicitcontracts,ortreaties ofgovernment,whichare thefoundationofallformalpoliticalunitsamongthenorthernpastoralSomali.Inconclusion,Iexamine thesignificanceofSomalipoliticalstructurein thelightofMaine'scelebrateddictumthatthe'movement of theprogressivesocieties has hithertobeenamovementfromStatustoContract'.IAs I havealreadygivenapreliminary descriptionof theSomalilineagesystem2Isumuphereonlythosefeatures which arerelevantto thepresentdiscussion. Clan-ship amongthenorthernpastoralnomads isall-pervasive.Mostsocialactivities arecontingentuponit;in thevenerationof locallineagesaintsIslamistied toit,andpoliticsstem from it.Everyoneisbornintoapatrilineage,indeedintoasystemofhighlysegmentedpatrilineal descent-groupswhichultimatelydivide the totalSomalipopulationofsome3millionpeopleintosevengreat'clan-families '. Theseven'clan-families'aretheDir,theIshaaq,theDaarood,theHawiye,the'Pre-Hawiye';theDigil,andthe Rahanwiin.3 Thetwolast,settledasmainlysedentarycultivatorsinsouthernSomalia,haveamixed clan constitutionverydifferentfromthat of theNorthernSomalipastoralists. Theyhaveahierarchicalpoliticalstructure withrankedofficesand considerabledegreeofadministrative stratification.This isentirelylacking amongthenorthern nomadswhohavegenerallynopositionsof institutedauthority.Thenorthernpastoralists,whoare theconcern ofthispaper,differagainfromthe cul-tivating Digiland Rahanwiin of thesouth in thatgenealogicalfictions arerareintheirlineagestructure.Menmaysometimes be attached toagnaticgroupsotherthantheirown,butonlyrarelyaretheyfully adoptedintoaforeignlineage.The clan-familiesare thelargest agnaticunits.They rangein sizefrom theDir,some halfmillion innumber4 andwidelyscatteredtoday,withlittle ornosense ofcorporate identity,totheDaarood,overa millionstrong.The latteralsoextend overagreatarea;from BritishSomaliland andnorthernSomaliathroughtheEthiopianOgaden,then,interruptedbytheHawiye,Rahanwiin,andDigil, theyfinallyextend
Thispaperisbasedonfieldworkcarried out in2SeemyTheSomaliLineageSystemand theTotaltheSomalilands betweeng955and
I957
under theGenealogy,Hargeisa (BritishSomaliland),andCrownauspicesof theColonial SocialScience ResearchAgentsforColonies, London,1957.Council, London,towhosegenerosityI amgreatly
3
In theorthographyadoptedinthispaper,longindebted.Iacknowledgewithgratitudethe advicevowels are indicatedbydoubling,as,e.g.aa, oo,&c.ofmyfriendMr. B. W.AndrzejewskioftheSchoolThe Arabicand Cushiticaspiratehisrepresentedof Oriental and AfricanStudies,London,withwhombyh;thevoicedpharyngalfricativeby';theglottalIhavediscussedmanyofthelinguisticpoints,stopby';andthe Cushiticpost-alveolarplosiveColleaguesat theUniversity Collegeof Rhodesiabyd.andNyasalandhave alsosuppliedusefulcriticism.4TheIshaaqare includedinthis estimate.
This content downloaded on Fri, 25 Jan 2013 14:57:34 PMAll use subject toJSTOR Terms and Conditions
 
CLANSHIPANDCONTRACT INNORTHERN SOMALILAND275LevelsofSegmentation
Ismaa'iilDaaroodKablallahKoombeHarti(Dulbahante)'Si'iidMuuse'AbdallaHabarwaaShirshorreh(Faarah Garaad)FaarahAhmadAadanHagarFaarah'Igaal2adAANMliadanluurClan-familyClanPrimaryineage-groupDia-paying roupIndividuallderTheDulbahante clancomprisessomeI5primary lineage-groupsandsome50Dia-paying groups.Inafewcases,smallprimary lineage-groupswhichare nothighlysegmentedactasDia-payinggroups.Thisistrueof,e.g.theHayaag, Yahya,HaamudUgaas,&c.
3
From'IgaalFaarah'seightsons stemthelineagesshown.Theyaredividedintotwouterinegroups,theBahHawiyeand BahUgaad,and thelatterarejoinedbyaverysmallgroup,theReerHaadFaarah,descendedfrom'Igaal'sbrother,Haad.
III
Jaama'Mahamuud Ismaa'iilBahHawiye(400)'IgaalFaarah
I
i IIII
HirsiMahammad'ArraalleAhmadNaalleeyeHaadBahUgaad(I,5oo)Thefirstthreedescendantsof'IgaalFaarahbythesame mother formoneDia-payinggroup.TheremainingfivefromanotherwifecomprisethreeDia-paying groups.These are theHirsi'Igaal(400);Mahammad'Igaal(600);andthe'Arraalle'IgaalwiththeHaadFaarah(400).TheAhmad'IgaalandNaalleeye'Igaal,together onlysome50 strong,actjointlywithalltheBahUgaadbutarenotparticularlyidentifiedwithany groupwithin it.Thepopulationfiguresshownareonly approximateestimatesand refersolelytomalestrength.DaaroodKablallahKoombeHartiSi'iidMuuse'ALdallaHabarwaaShirshorrehFaarahAhmadAadanHagarFaarah'IgaalMahammad'AliMahammAadanNuur'Abdi
This content downloaded on Fri, 25 Jan 2013 14:57:34 PMAll use subject toJSTOR Terms and Conditions

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