Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Sufism in Somaliland a Study in Tribal Islam--II by: I.M. lewis

Sufism in Somaliland a Study in Tribal Islam--II by: I.M. lewis

Ratings: (0)|Views: 33 |Likes:
Sufism in Somaliland a Study in Tribal Islam--II by: I.M. lewis
Sufism in Somaliland a Study in Tribal Islam--II by: I.M. lewis

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: AbuAbdur-RazzaqAl-Misri on Feb 25, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

09/09/2014

pdf

text

original

 
Sufism in Somaliland: A Study in Tribal Islam--IIAuthor(s): I. M. LewisReviewed work(s):Source:
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London,
Vol. 18,No. 1 (1956), pp. 145-160Published by:
on behalf of
Stable URL:
Accessed: 25/01/2013 15:01
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at
.
.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.
.
Cambridge University Press
and
School of Oriental and African Studies
are collaborating with JSTOR todigitize, preserve and extend access to
 Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of  London.
http://www.jstor.org
This content downloaded on Fri, 25 Jan 2013 15:01:44 PMAll use subject toJSTOR Terms and Conditions
 
SUFISMIN SOMALILAND:A STUDY INTRIBALISLAM-II
ByI.M. LEWIS
III.CUSHITIC RELIGION
N thefirstpartof thisstudywe followedthedevelopmentof theSufitariqaorganizationinSomalilandafter the introduction of Islamand examinedthefunctionsexercisedbySuficommunitiesinthesocial structure. Weinterpretedtheclosersocialandgenealogicalassimilation of
jama'as
amongthenomadictribesin terms of lack of arableland available forthefoundationofindependentsettlements.It wasarguedthat thegenealogicalidiom in which socialrelationsarenormallydescribed,especiallyamongstthenomads,is extended tothejamd'asbyvirtueoftheir identification with theArabiangenealogiesof theirsheiks. TheincorporationofsuchSuifigenealogieswasheldtoexplainhowtheSomalilineage systemis in itsfurthest extensionextrapolatedtotheQurayshiticlineageoftheProphet.Sufiand Somalitribalgenealogies,itwassuggested,haveparallelreligiousfunctionswhich make such assimilationpossible.Inthelightof thesesimilarities ofreligiousfunction,and,inorder toprovideatheologicalframeworkfor the discussion ofsyncretismwhich concludesthisessay,itwill benecessaryto makesomeattempttocompare pre-Islamicand Islamic Somalitheology.Thisshouldreveal the factors whichunderliethe riseofSufisminSomaliland.ThepresentaccountofCushiticreligioninSomaliland islimitedmainlytotheHawiyetribesofsouthern Somalia.Cushitic featuresofHawiyebeliefandpracticehave beenrecordedinsomedetailbyCerulli;information onthenorthern Somaliisscantyandmuchlesssatisfactory. Religiononlywillbeconsideredandpre-Islamiccustomssuchasthelevirate,sororate,circumcisionandinfibulation, etc.,whicharenotspecificallyreligiousand donotinthem-selveselucidatereligiousconceptswillbeignored.Ashasbeenemphasized,Islam isinterpreted throughthemedium oftheearlierCushiticsubstratumwhichisbeingcontinuouslymodified andprogressivelyIslamized. Inthepresentcontextit is notnecessarytogointotheracialhistoryofSomaliland1inanydetailbeyond recallingthat,evenpriortothetwelfthcentury,2theSomalihadbeguntheirsouthernexpansionat theexpenseoftheirGalla(Cushitic)predecessors.AstheGallawithdrew beforetheadvancingSomali,theytookmuchoftheir commonCushitic culturewiththem,whiletheSomaliincreasingly adoptedIslam. Islamhad,as wehaveseen,made itsappearanceinthe coastalcentresshortlyafter theHejira.However,therearestillto-dayafewtribeswhichpreservemuchoftheirCushiticcultureunmodifiedbyMusliminfluence. TheHawiyeretainsufficientoftheiroldreligiontoindicateitsgeneralcharacteristics.
1Fora tentativeaccountseeLewis,1955,45-8.
2
SeeHuntingford,1955,19.
VOL. XVIII.PART1.
12
This content downloaded on Fri, 25 Jan 2013 15:01:44 PMAll use subject toJSTOR Terms and Conditions
 
I.M.LEWIS
ZarandWaaqTheSupremeBeingofCushiticreligionis aSkyGodwho isregardedasFatheroftheuniverse.Theentire worldofnature,includingmanand hispossessions,isultimatelyGod's.The root-namefortheSkyGodmaybeZdr,since,accordingto Cerulli(1923,p.2)Zdroccursinthis context withonlyslightmodificationsinmost Cushiticlanguagesand is the formusedamongthepagan AgaowhosereligionhasbeentakenasthearchetypeofCushiticreligion(cf.Ullendorff,1955,pp.63-4).Since,however,comparativestudyoftheCushiticlanguagesisinitsinfancythistheoryisuncertain.Amongthe northernSomali Eebbe(Father)is acommon nameforGod-now Allah-andamongtheHawiyeof thesouththewordused isWaaq(cf.Galla,Waaqa1).WaaqinnorthernSomalilandoccurs incertain obscureexpletivesbutisnotgenerallyusedtodesignateGod. Zdritselfappearsto occurintheformSaar,which,asweshallsee,connotesaspirit-refractionaccretedtoIslamasamalignantjinn.Eebbe andWaaqarenow,ofcourse,appliedtoAllah,andtheseCushiticnamesandtheir derivativesarestillfound aspersonalandplace-names.God'sexaltedpositionisindicated inthesongsaddressedtoHim.'ChildrenareYours,womenYours,cattle Yours.''IfYou arepleasedwithourfinehorses,takethem.Ifour slavespleaseYou,takethem,andifourwivesfindfavourinYoursighttakethem also.' God isapprehendedas Hewatchesovercreationin thesun'slight,justas man is aware ofhissurroundingshroughthegiftofsight.Prayersrun:'WatchusGod,Youwhohaveeyes,knowandweshallknow,for after Youhaveknownweknow
'.2
'KnowledgeisYours,sightisYours,watch us withgoodeyes.Makeus see well.SightisYours.'Thesemanticrelation iseyes, seeing,sun,andlight.God's eternalconstancyiscomparedtothecentral-poleofthe hut.'Maythecentral-polebeasofiron.'Withoutsupportman's housecollapses,butGod,'the samewithout thecentral-pole',is full of wonder andpower.Somalistillsing'ThisSky,thesameun-changing,without thecentral-poleaccordingtotheDivineWill'(Cerulli,op.cit.).TheSkyGod's beltistherainbow,andtherainsare in hiskeepingas agiftforman;certainindividualshavepowerover therainsthroughtheirrelationtoGod.Saarin Somali describesastateofpossession byaspiritalso calledsaar.The extremesymptomsarefrenzy,fits,ormadness,andthespirititselfis,intheIslamicsetting,described asa kind ofjinnwhosemalignant powerscausecertaintypesofsickness.Amongthe eastern tribesof northernSomaliland'invisible'wadaad(see above)actsimilarlytosaarbuthavelessseriouseffectsandaremerely responsibleforsomeminor formsof illness. Saar canbeexpelledbypersonswhohaveacquiredmasteryover thespiritsthroughhavingthem-selves beenpreviously possessed.Innorthern Somalilandsuch'doctors'(alaqa)aregenerallywomen,for visitation ishere confinedalmostexclusively
1Foranexcellent accountof thereligionoftheGalla ofEthiopiaseeHuntingford,195574-87.
2
cf.Koran,Sura
ii,
30.
146
This content downloaded on Fri, 25 Jan 2013 15:01:44 PMAll use subject toJSTOR Terms and Conditions

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->