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Reflective Account- Ayo Barek

Reflective Account- Ayo Barek

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Research into personality- trait theory; groups- group formation and cohesion and their implications in sport and the success that may be achieved in sports.
Research into personality- trait theory; groups- group formation and cohesion and their implications in sport and the success that may be achieved in sports.

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Published by: A11y09o93 on Feb 25, 2013
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 Ayomikun Barek. Student no. 1209910 Page
Reflective Account
Topic 1: Personality- Trait TheoryPrinciplesPersonality can be defined as the more or less stable and enduring organisation of aperson
s character, temperament, intellect and physique, which determines the uniqueadjustment the individual makes to the environment. (Eysenck, 1968).Personality is a broad subject that can be discussed with many theories; however I will bediscussing trait or dispositional theory in more depth, where I will differentiate betweenvarieties of personality traits and discuss their implications on an athlete. Traits can bedefined as habitual and innate patterns of behaviour, thought and emotion. RaymondCattell (1965) explored the different categories of traits he believed that they were:-
Constitutional Traits: Determined by biology;
Environmental-Mold Traits: Determined by environment;
Ability Traits: Person’s skill in dealing with the complexity
of a given situation;
Temperament Traits: Person’s stylistic tendencies
Dynamic Traits: Person’s
motivations and interests.Cattell also produced the formula:
R = f(S x P)
R = Behavioural Response, f = afunction of, S = the situation and P = personality, this says that a response is a function of the situation and personality.There are five broad factors of personality
which are referred to as the ‘Big Five’ or ‘Five
Factor Model’
. Firstly there is,
Openness to experience/understanding
this trait focuses onbehavioural aspects of having an interest to new ideas, and being imaginative, this trait isalso considered to be mainly cognitive. The second trait is
this traitexplores the tendency to show self-discipline and also having a meticulous nature. Thirdly
is the trait that exhibits qualities such as sociability and the affinity to seekstimulation from activities that result in high arousal also extroverts enjoy being in thecompany of others and can be very talkative. The fourth trait is
this refers toa trusting, empathetic, sympathetic, cooperative and friendly nature and the fifth trait is
this ‘refers to an individual’s tendency to become upset or emotional’ (Hans
Eysenck); emotions such as anger, depression, anxiety, additionally neuroticism refers toimpulse control and emotional stability.
 Ayomikun Barek. Student no. 1209910 Page
Key Principles Application to Sport/activity practitionerThe following key principles can be applied to sport participation:Key Principles Application to sport participationTraits are genetic and biological The belief that traits-which in fact determineour actions-are bound by genetics limits aperformer due to the fact that they cannotchange their trait and unless they alter theirbiological composition they will always becomprised of certain traits, e.g. according tothis principle a performer who is an introvertcan only respond as an introvert, so when itcomes to playing team sports they willstruggle when they become identifiable andhave to integrate within a team and besociable, this will mostly lead to negativeoutcomes i.e. missed shots, turnovers,injuries, lack of knowledge etc. However thismay not be a limiting factor as some sportsfavour introvert personality who also exhibitconscientiousness, sports such as golf, skiingetc where participation is based only on theindividual and the activity requiressomewhat fine skill.Somewhat stable dimensions/traits The performer must understand that thetrait Neuroticism effects their emotionalstability therefore their tendency to becomeupset and emotional in difficult or stressfulsituations will in turn effect theirperformance; e.g. if a performer is beingdefended by an opponent in basketball andthey find is difficult to pass them and theyalso get the ball stolen from them they willbecome frustrated and if they have adisposition that leans more in favour withneuroticism then they will lose their temperquickly however if they have a dispositionthat leans more negatively away fromneuroticism then they will be able to keeptheir cool for longer, the latter will befavourable in sports where arousal levelsneed to be low i.e. golf, darts or set shots orpenalties and the former may be favourablein combat sports where aggression can bedeemed advantageous sports such as boxingand mixed martial arts (MMA).
 Ayomikun Barek. Student no. 1209910 Page
Generality of trait expression
Based on psychologist Gordon Allport’s
statement that traits work to renderdifferent stimuli equivalent (Boyle et al.2008) which means that if two differentstimuli come about then a trait will actaccordingly to bring about an equilibrium of stimuli, therefore when understanding traitsa performer must make sure they take intoconsideration that traits are situationspecific, so if a situation calls forextraversion then that is how theyshould/would act, however this idea islimiting in the sense that traits can beapplied to a variety of situations e.g. in agame of basketball extraversion may comeinto play because a play may require a fastbreak to occur, whilst extraversion can alsobe necessary in boxing in order to persevereand triumph an opponent.Environmental-Mold Traits This idea that traits are determined by the
environment can be used to the
advantage. Whether they havean introvert or extrovert dispositiondifferent traits will come about duringdifferent environmental settings therefore aperformer can consciously produce anenvironment that is not only favourable tothem but also favours particular traits e.g. ina game of basketball a performer can scorepoints and increase the morale of the teamearly on in the match; now according to thisprinciple the environment will bring aboutthe
habitual and innate
’ traits that suit the
situation which in this case-relating to teammorale-could be agreeableness and due toincreased happiness and confidence,extraversion; the performer is now usingtraits that are most favourable to theirsuccess but now at an unconscious level.

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