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Research on Problems and Prospects of Education in Ethiopia

Research on Problems and Prospects of Education in Ethiopia

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: hundee on Feb 22, 2009
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11/13/2012

 
 
CHAPTER ONE
1.INTRODUCTION1.1Background of the study
Even though the history of education in Ethiopia dates as far back as the introduction of Christianity in Ethiopia during Ezana in 3300A.D, the first attempt to open school of European style was for the first time made by the Jesuit in the 16
th
century. This attempt wasnot continued due to the outstanding of Jesuits following the removal of emperor Susinyos.Toward the end of the 19
th
century, several factors accentuated the need for moderneducation. The establishment of strong central government and permanent urban seats of modern development of modern sector economy like manufacturing activities, establishmentof foreign embassies of Adwa, are, among others, the main factors that have contributed for the development of modern education in Ethiopia. Modern education has started at the beginning of the 20
th
century and officially commenced in 1908 with opening of Menelik 1
st
School in Addis Ababa. (Ministry of education, 2004),Ethiopian education in general has two systems of main sub-sectors that areinstitutionally separate:-1.formal educational sub-sector, which consist of academic and technical and training at primary, secondary and tertiary level ; and2.non-formal education which includes:-Technical vocational skills trained and extensive contact for youth and adults.Between 1962 and 1994 the general education in Ethiopia divided into three these are:--primary school (grade1-6)-junior secondary school (grade7-8)-senior secondary school (grade9-12)Education reforms in 1994 revised the structure so that it now cons in 1994 revised thestructure and modify the previous system of education so after 1994 consists of primaryeducation (grade1-8) which also consists of first cycle (grade 1-4) which aims at achievingthe functional literacy and the second cycles (grade5-8) prepares students for further education, general secondary education and training, and second cycles of the secondaryeducation (grade11-12), that prepares student for higher education.1
 
1.1.1.
Educational policies and strategies in Ethiopia.
Attempts to formulate the education sector policies during imperial regime were limitedto a proclamation (1943 and 1948) which deals with the organization and duties andresponsibilities of the ministry of education and its duties. It was made to adapt the Ethiopianeducation to the needs of the country and expands the coverage of the activities in the provision of special training for the sector and education system. (Ministry of Education of Ethiopia, 2004),1.1.2.
Performance of education sector in the Ethiopia
.Education directly improves the productivity and rates of return and earnings of people. Inaddition to this, education has or wide range of indirect effects, which instigate positivechanges in peoples attitudes toward work and society. It make easier to learn new skillsthroughout their lives and hence facilitate their participation in modern economies andsocieties. It also important factor which affects the health
 
and life expectancy of individuals, because if equips them with the knowledge and the means to present control and directdisease. (Ministry of Education of Ethiopia, 2004).
1.1.3.Education in Oromia Regional states
Regarding to Oromia regional states of Ethiopia, it is one of the regions in the countrywhere both formal and non-formal education do not reach the majority of the population. Theschool in the regions are unevenly distributed and mostly physically and materially anddeteriorated. This deterioration is due to cultural and other constraints there is a higher dropout rate at the lower level which mostly affects girls’ participation in the education of theregion. (Finance and Development Bureau of Oromia, 2005),Education system of Oromia regional state normally consists of formal and non-formaleducation.Formal education comprises of primary, secondary educations, technical and vocationaleducations. The data that recorded in 2005 in Oromia regional bureau of educations showsthat, two teachers training institute (TTI), four teachers training college (TTC), 38 technicaland vocational education training (TTET), of which 36 and 2 are government and non-government centers respectively. Moreover, there are 164 secondary schools, and 4893 primary schools in the Oromia regions. (Regional Education Bureau of Oromia, 2005),
1.3.1 Enrollment of education in Oromia regional state
The enrollment of education in oromia regional education in the
past seven yearsfrom 1987 to 1995 shows increasing in primary education which is 21%(1987) to 66.7% in 1995. Generally, the primary education enrolment ratewas growing at an average rate of about 5.8% per annum. By and large,the current level of enrolment as well as the annual growth rate comparedto the level of 1987 is encouraging. Nonetheless, the level of primaryeducation participation has remained low compared to the achievementsof some of the regional states (Tigray 77.6% and SNNP 67.5%). On theother hand, the gender gap is getting wider growing from 12% in 1987 to31% in 1995. Therefore, it is obvious that what has been achieved overthe past seven years has favored male than female signifying the required
2
 
level of attention to be paid in order to improve female's participation inprimary education. Lack of proximity, lack of opportunity to go to the nexthigher level of education, low income of parents, lack of awareness of thebenefits of education by some parents and poor facilities are amongfactors contributing to lower enrolment rate at primary education level.Similar to
 
gender gap there is significant disparity of enrolment rateamong godina's. In line with this, Arsi has attained
 
the highest enrollmentrate of 86.3% in 1995, whereas Hararge is standing at only 46.6%, whichis the lowest
 
enrollment rate compared to all other godina's of Oromia.
1.3.2. Performance
As can be seen from the trend of growth of number of educationalfacilities stated in the previous section, tremendous efforts were made toimprove access to education facilities over the past seven years (1987-1995 E.C). According to the available data in this regard the number of primary schools has increased from 4069 to 4893. Likewise, the numberof secondary schools has also increased from 108 to 164, which is acommendable achievement over a shorter period of time. This generallyindicates that on an average the regional government has beenconstructing and putting in operation about 103 primary and 7 secondaryschools each year. It is apparent from this, that the rate of increase insenior secondary schools facilities is by far significantly lower than that of primary schools affecting the quality of and access to secondary leveleducation.
Education in Aweday town
Aweday town is one of the towns of the Eastern Hararge Zone of Oromia which is located between Harar town and Haramaya town. In this town there are for primary schools andamong this only one primary school is owned by public and the other three are private ownedschools. These four primary school are Dandi-Boru,
1.2.Statement of the problems
The number of school going children is increasing from year to year. Here is a need to provide the educational facilities for them through opening of various types of educationalinstitutions. Because of different constraints like poverty, cultural factors majority of the3

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