some terms useful for the new science of thermodynamics. He sued the caloric, introducedin 1780, by Antoine Lavoisier who told that the matter of fire, indestructible, is the caloricand it is disengaged from bodies during combustion. In 1862, Clausius relate the integral of dQ/T to something he called “disgregation” of the body having relation to arrangement of molecules of working body , after reading the Carnot’s 1824 paper
On the Motive Power of Fire
that characterized the transformations of working substances in an engine cycle. In1865, dS=dQ/T was defined as the transformational content of the working body but thensettles on entropy, so to have similarity to the word energy. The term “entropy” is comingfrom the German Entropie, from Green entropia, a turning toward, from en,in, and trope, aturning .
1 - Cum principalis intentio nostra sit de calore solis, cuiusmodi habet principiumgenerationis quaeramus universaliter: quot sunt principia generationis? Et cum tria sint,ex quibus generatur calor, scilicet calidum, motus et collectio radiorum, sciendum quodcalidum in his sit univocum; quo univoco fit in his passio univoca. Cum ergo in his sitpassio univoca, erit in his omnibus causa univoca: omnis enim passionis univocae estcausa univoca.
Since our main aim is about the heat of the sun, let us inquire in general what is then the principle of generation of heat: that is, how many are the principles of heat generation? And since these are three, from which the heat is generated, that is, a hot body, motion and concentration of rays, it should be to know that, in these three cases, there is a heat of a single nature (univocum); and this univocal heat produces a univocal effect. When,therefore, there is a univocal undergoing effect, we shall find a univocal cause: thereforeevery univocal effect has a univocal cause.
I translated “univocus” with “univocal” in the sense of “being of a single kind”, or producing something of its own nature, in a univocal generation due to a univocal cause. Inmathematics, a univocal correspondence is a mathematical correspondence, where eachelement of the joint origin just by corresponds an element of the joint image.
2 - Quod autem calidum in his omnibus sit univocum, patet: Calidum enim exquocunque istorum generatum eandem habet virtutem, idem facit opus. Ergo non estaequivoce dictum, sed univoce.
That the heat in all these things is univocal is clear: because heat generated in any of thesemanners has the same power, makes the same accomplishment. Therefore, it is stated, not in an equivocal sense, but in a univocal sense.
3 - Quaeramus ergo istam causam univocam! In omnibus autem illis est proxima causacalidi disgregatio. Unde cum calidum generat calidum, hoc est per disgregationemmaterierum. Qualiter autem illud conveniat motui et collectioni radiorum, difficile estvidere.
Therefore, let us search this univocal cause! In all of them, the immediate cause of heat isdisgregation. Hence then, a hot thing generates heat: it does by the disgregation of itsmatter. In what way, however, this disgregation is occurring in movement and incondensation of rays, it is difficult to see.
4 - Motus autem localis, ex quo generatur calidum, dividitur in motum naturalem etmotum violentum. Motus naturalis dividitur in motum rectum et circularem.