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Signal-Space-Analysis-of-BASK-BFSK-BPSK-And-QAM-on-Mac.pdfSignal-Space-Analysis-of-BASK-BFSK-BPSK-And-QAM-on-Mac.pdf

Signal-Space-Analysis-of-BASK-BFSK-BPSK-And-QAM-on-Mac.pdfSignal-Space-Analysis-of-BASK-BFSK-BPSK-And-QAM-on-Mac.pdf

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Signal-Space-Analysis-of-BASK-BFSK-BPSK-And-QAM-on-Mac.pdf
Signal-Space-Analysis-of-BASK-BFSK-BPSK-And-QAM-on-Mac.pdf

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Published by: gigamaxbyte on Feb 26, 2013
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Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
30. Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM
The vector-space representation of signals and the optimum detection process whichchooses the signal closest to the received signal is particularly useful in signal design and inprobability-of-error calculations. The material presented herein includes the errorperformance of binary amplitude-shift keying (BASK), binary frequency-shift keying(BFSK), binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), and
 M 
-ary quadrature amplitude modulation(QAM) signals.
Error Performance of Binary ASK
A binary amplitude-shift keying (BASK) signal can be defined by
s
(
) =
 A ct t elsewhere
cos( ),,2 00
π 
(30.1)where
 A
is a constant,
 f c
is the carrier frequency, and
is the bit duration. It has apower
P
=
 A
2 /2, so that
 A
=
2
P
. Thus equation (30.1) can be written as
s
(
)=
2 2 00
P ct t elsewhere
cos( ),,
π 
=
PT  f ct t elsewhere
22 00cos( ),,
π 
=
 E  f ct t elsewhere
22 00cos( ),,
π 
(30.2) where
 E 
=
PT 
is the energy contained in a bit duration. Figure 30.1 shows the signalconstellation diagram of BASK signals and the conditional probability density functionsassociated with the signals.
Figure 30.1
BASK signal constellation diagram and the conditional probability densityfunctions associated with the signals.The energy contained in a bit duration is
 E 
=
2(30.3
)
and so
30.1
 
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
=
 E 
(30.4)It is assumed that the noise is
additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN) with a two-sidedpower spectral density of 
n
0 /2,
 zero mean
and fixed
variance
 
σ 
2=
n
0 /2. In thepresence of AWGN, the conditional probability density function of 
φ 
1assuming that
s
0is transmitted is
 f 
(
φ 
1/ 0) =
1221222
πσ φ σ 
e
and the probability of error given that
s
0is transmitted is
Pe
0=
φ 
12
=
∫ 
 / 
(
φ 
1 /0)
φ 
1=
φ 
12
=
∫ 
 / 12212221
πσ φ σ φ 
e
(30.5)Similarly, the probability of error given that
s
1is transmitted is
Pe
1=
−∞=
∫ 
φ 
12
 / 
(
φ 
1 /1)
φ 
1=
1221222112
πσ φ σ φ φ 
e
−∞=
∫ 
( ) / 
=
Pe
1where
 f 
(
φ 
1/1) =
1221222
πσ φ σ 
e
( )
(30.6)Let
 p
0be the probability of sending
s
0and
 p
1be the probability of sending
s
1. Forequally likely transmission of binary signals, we have
 p
0=
 p
1= 0.5. The averageprobability of error is given by
Pe
=
 p
0 
Pe
0+
 p
1 
Pe
1=
Pe
0=
φ 
12
=
∫ 
 / 12212221
πσ φ σ φ 
e
(30.7)
30.2
 
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
Let
 y
=
φ σ 
12
. Then
 y
2=
φ σ 
1222
and
dy
=
φ σ 
12
. Substituting
 y
and
dy
intoequation (30.7), we get
Pe
=
12 2
π σ 
 y
=
∫ 
e
-
 y
2 
dy
 =12[2
π 
 y
∫ 
e
-
 y
2 
dy
]=12 
erfc
(
2 2
σ 
)=12 
erfc
(
n
20
)=12 
erfc
(
n
40
)(30.8)where the complementary error function is
erfc
(
 x
) =2
π 
 x
∫ 
e
-
α 
2 
α 
(30.9)
σ 
2=
n
0 /2 for AWGN, and
=
 E 
.
Error Performance of Binary PSK
A binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) signal can be defined by
s
(
) = +
 A
cos 2
π
 f c
,0 <
<
(30.10)where
 A
is a constant,
 f c
is the carrier frequency, and
is the bit duration. It has apower
P
=
 A
2 /2, so that
 A
=
2
P
. Thus equation (30.10) can be written as
s
(
)= +
2
P
cos 2
π
 f c
= +
PT 
2
cos 2
π
 f c
= +
2
cos 2
π
 f c
(30.11) 
30.3

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