http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP European History
The Revolutions of 1848
, the king of France in 1848, and his minister
, led a corruptgovernment that limited the power of the middle class in government. As a result, oppositioncame in the form of the
. The liberal Republicanswere moderate and middle class who supported expansion of voting rights to all male voters.The radical republicans wanted widespread social and economic changes to help the lives of the workers – in effect; they were like the utopian socialists. Both groups opposed amonarchy. When the government prevented the holding of a political meeting in honor of
, the crowds paraded through the streets demanding political reformduring the
, resulting in the abdication of Louis Philippe and subsequentresignation of Guizot.A
was set up consisting of the Political Republicans (middle classliberals) and Social Republicans (the working class).
Alphonse de Lamartine
led the PoliticalRepublicans, who favored moderate reforms and wanted a republican constitution.
, a Social Republican, was allowed to establish national workshops to provide jobs forthe unemployed. However, under a new government, the National Assembly, which wasdominated by moderates and conservatives, the workshops were shut down, resulting in the
General Louis Cavaignac
, under orders from the government, put down therebellion and full-scale class warfare in the June Riots.The National Assembly issued a constitution for a Second French Republic, where there was astrong president with a one-house legislature, elected by universal male suffrage.
, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, was elected, mainly due to his name, whichsymbolized “
Ordem e Progresso
” for France. While he initially cooperated with the NationalAssembly, he initiated a coup d’etat in 1851 when they refused to let him run for reelection.He replaced the Second Republic with the Second Empire, proclaiming himself
. Facing economic problems, he set up the
, twonational banks that would give out cheap credit and encourage investment. Napoleon alsoworked with
to change France into a modern city, clearing slums andcreating wide boulevards, as well as developing a sewage system. The price for suchdevelopment, however, was censorship, secret police, and state-controlled elections.Napoleon III becomes interested in colonizing Mexico for the benefit of the French, resultingin the Mexican Affair. The French Legion overthrows the Mexican government and NapoleonIII installs
, unpopular rulers that were overthrown in four years.Involvement with the
led to the fall of the Second Empire, as the Frenchsuffered a humiliating defeat at the
Battle of Sedan
, in which Napoleon III was captured. Thebeginning of the German empire was declared after this battle in the Hall of Mirrors. It wasin the Battle of Sedan that
was captured – he later becomes the