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APEH, The Revolutions of 1848

APEH, The Revolutions of 1848

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Published by: Julie on Feb 23, 2009
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12/09/2013

 
1
 
http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP European History
The Revolutions of 1848
France
Louis Philippe
, the king of France in 1848, and his minister
Francois Guizot
, led a corruptgovernment that limited the power of the middle class in government. As a result, oppositioncame in the form of the
liberal Republicans
and
radical Republicans
. The liberal Republicanswere moderate and middle class who supported expansion of voting rights to all male voters.The radical republicans wanted widespread social and economic changes to help the lives of the workers – in effect; they were like the utopian socialists. Both groups opposed amonarchy. When the government prevented the holding of a political meeting in honor of 
George Washington
, the crowds paraded through the streets demanding political reformduring the
February Days
, resulting in the abdication of Louis Philippe and subsequentresignation of Guizot.A
provisional government
was set up consisting of the Political Republicans (middle classliberals) and Social Republicans (the working class).
 Alphonse de Lamartine
led the PoliticalRepublicans, who favored moderate reforms and wanted a republican constitution.
LouisBlanc
, a Social Republican, was allowed to establish national workshops to provide jobs forthe unemployed. However, under a new government, the National Assembly, which wasdominated by moderates and conservatives, the workshops were shut down, resulting in the
 June Riots
.
General Louis Cavaignac
, under orders from the government, put down therebellion and full-scale class warfare in the June Riots.The National Assembly issued a constitution for a Second French Republic, where there was astrong president with a one-house legislature, elected by universal male suffrage.
LouisNapoleon
, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, was elected, mainly due to his name, whichsymbolized “
Ordem e Progresso
” for France. While he initially cooperated with the NationalAssembly, he initiated a coup d’etat in 1851 when they refused to let him run for reelection.He replaced the Second Republic with the Second Empire, proclaiming himself 
EmperorNapoleon III
. Facing economic problems, he set up the
Credit Mobilier
and the
Foncier
, twonational banks that would give out cheap credit and encourage investment. Napoleon alsoworked with
Georges Hausmann
to change France into a modern city, clearing slums andcreating wide boulevards, as well as developing a sewage system. The price for suchdevelopment, however, was censorship, secret police, and state-controlled elections.Napoleon III becomes interested in colonizing Mexico for the benefit of the French, resultingin the Mexican Affair. The French Legion overthrows the Mexican government and NapoleonIII installs
Maxmillian
and
Carlotta
, unpopular rulers that were overthrown in four years.Involvement with the
Franco-Prussian War
led to the fall of the Second Empire, as the Frenchsuffered a humiliating defeat at the
Battle of Sedan
, in which Napoleon III was captured. Thebeginning of the German empire was declared after this battle in the Hall of Mirrors. It wasin the Battle of Sedan that
Georges Clemenceau
was captured – he later becomes the
 
2
 
http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP European History
The Revolutions of 1848
president of France during WWI and will seek revenge upon Germany for the humiliation afterthe Franco-Prussian War.The National Assembly met to decide on a new government, the Third Republic, which wasplagued by difficulties.
 Adolphe Thiers,
when faced with a huge rebellion of Communards,ordered the Paris National Guard to crush the rebellion. In response, a radical governmentcalled the Paris Commune took control of Paris. Ultimately, 20,000 lives were lost puttingdown the rebellion. Attempts to restore a monarchy were weakened by the oppositionbetween
Bourbonist
and
Orleanist
claimants to the throne. As a result, a
parliamentarygovernment
was established for the Third Republic.In the
Boulanger Affair
, General Georges Boulanger was suspected of planning a coup d’etatfor a monarchical form of government. The republicans were able to expel him from thecountry in time. In the
Dreyfus Affair
, a Jewish Republican Army captain was declared guiltyof selling military secrets to the Germans. Many people suspected an
anti-Semitic
conspiracy.(Note that the general rule that anti-Semitism increases the further one goes east in Europe).He was convicted and sent to Devil’s Island, resulting in conflict between the Drefuysards(supporters of Dreyfus and republicanism) and the anti-Dreyfusards (those who believed hewas guilty and supporters of the monarchy). The novelist
Emile Zola
wrote
 J’accuse
 
in whichhe accuses the military of anti-Semitic action through forging evidence and setting Dreyfus upas a scapegoat. Dreyfus was pardoned in 1906.The Austrian EmpireThe Habsburg Empire was headed by
Emperor Ferdinand I
, a senile empire vulnerable torevolutionary changes.
Klemens von Metternich
was the official with the actual power (recallhis role in the
Congress of Vienna
). As news of the February Days in France spread to Austria,workers and university students began to demonstrate in the streets of Vienna. Metternichresigned and fled to England. An Austrian constituent assembly was established and in July1848, the days of 
Robot
were ended.The revolutionary disturbances began to subside and troops loyal to the emperor regainedcontrol of Vienna.
Prince Schwarzenberg
, now the leading figure in the imperial government,arranged for Ferdinand I’s abdication and his replacement by his eighteen-year-old nephew,
Franz Joseph
(his great-grand child, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was assassinated in 1914 by
Gavrilo Princip
).However, revolutions continued in Hungary and Bohemia. Hungarian nationalist and Magyar
Lajos Kossuth
demanded independence for Hungary. Kossuth was able to establish aHungarian Republic, approving the
March Laws
, which ended serfdom, provided for thedemocratic election of a parliament, and created the Home Defense Army. Additionally,

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