Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword or section
Like this
2Activity

Table Of Contents

1.1 References
1.2 A Statistical View
2.1 References
2.2.1 Thermodynamic systems and state variables
2.2.2 Heat
2.2.3 Work
2.2.4 Pressure and Temperature
2.2.5 Standard temperature and pressure
2.3. THE ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 27
2.3 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
2.4 Mathematical Interlude : Exact and Inexact Differentials
2.5. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 29
2.5 The First Law of Thermodynamics
2.5.1 Conservation of energy
2.5.2 Single component systems
2.5.3 Ideal gases
2.5.4 Adiabatic transformations of ideal gases
2.5.5 Adiabatic free expansion
2.6 Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
2.6.1 There’s no free lunch so quit asking
2.6.2 Engines and refrigerators
2.6.3 Nothing beats a Carnot engine
2.6.4 The Carnot cycle
2.6.5 The Stirling cycle
2.6.6 The Otto and Diesel cycles
2.6.7 The Joule-Brayton cycle
2.6.8 Carnot engine at maximum power output
2.7 The Entropy
2.7.1 Entropy and heat
2.7.2 The Third Law of Thermodynamics
2.7.3 Entropy changes in cyclic processes
2.7.4 Gibbs-Duhem relation
2.7.5 Entropy for an ideal gas
2.7.6 Example system
2.8. THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIALS 59
2.7.7 Measuring the entropy of a substance
2.8 Thermodynamic Potentials
2.8.1 Energy E
2.8.2 Helmholtz free energy F
2.8.3 EnthalpyH
2.8.4 Gibbs free energy G
2.8.5 Grand potential Ω
2.9 Maxwell Relations
2.9.1 Relations deriving from E(S,V,N)
2.9.2 Relations deriving from F(T,V,N)
2.9.3 Relations deriving fromH(S,p,N)
2.9.4 Relations deriving from G(T,p,N)
2.9.5 Relations deriving from Ω(T,V,µ)
2.9.6 Generalized thermodynamic potentials
2.10. EQUILIBRIUM AND STABILITY 67
2.10 Equilibrium and Stability
2.11 Applications of Thermodynamics
2.11.1 Adiabatic free expansion revisited
2.11.2 Energy and volume
2.11.3 van der Waals equation of state
2.11.4 Thermodynamic response functions
2.11.5 Joule effect: free expansion of a gas
2.11.6 Throttling: the Joule-Thompson effect
2.12 Entropy of Mixing and the Gibbs Paradox
2.12.1 Computing the entropy of mixing
2.12.2 Entropy and combinatorics
2.12.3 Weak solutions and osmotic pressure
2.12.4 Effect of impurities on boiling and freezing points
2.12.5 Binary solutions
2.13 Some Concepts in Thermochemistry
2.13.1 Chemical reactions and the law of mass action
2.13.2 Enthalpy of formation
2.13.3 Bond enthalpies
2.14. PHASE TRANSITIONS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA 101
2.14 Phase Transitions and Phase Equilibria
2.14.1 p-v-T surfaces
2.14.2 The Clausius-Clapeyron relation
2.14.3 Liquid-solid line in H2O
2.14.4 Slow melting of ice : a quasistatic but irreversible process
2.14.5 Gibbs phase rule
2.15 Appendix I : Integrating factors
2.16. APPENDIX II : LEGENDRE TRANSFORMATIONS 113
2.16 Appendix II : Legendre Transformations
3.2.3 Decomposition of Γij
3.2.4 Boltzmann’sH-theorem
3.3 Phase Flows in Classical Mechanics
3.3.1 Hamiltonian evolution
3.3.2 Dynamical systems and the evolution of phase space volumes
3.3.3 Liouville’s equation and the microcanonical distribution
3.4. IRREVERSIBILITYAND POINCAR´E RECURRENCE 131
3.4 Irreversibility and Poincar´e Recurrence
3.4.1 Poincar´e recurrence theorem
3.4.2 Kac ring model
3.5 Remarks on Ergodic Theory
3.5.1 Definition of ergodicity
3.5.2 The microcanonical ensemble
3.5.3 Ergodicity and mixing
3.6 Thermalization of Quantum Systems
3.6.1 Quantum dephasing
3.6.2 Eigenstate thermalization hypothesis
3.7. APPENDIX: RADIOACTIVE DECAY 147
3.6.3 When is the ETH true?
3.7 Appendix: Radioactive Decay
Statistical Ensembles
4.1 References
4.2 Microcanonical Ensemble (µCE)
4.2.1 The microcanonical distribution function
4.2.2 Density of states
4.2.3 Arbitrariness in the definition of S(E)
4.2.4 Ultra-relativistic ideal gas
4.2.5 Discrete systems
4.3. THE QUANTUM MECHANICAL TRACE 155
4.3 The Quantum Mechanical Trace
4.3.1 The density matrix
4.3.2 Averaging the DOS
4.3.3 Coherent states
4.4 Thermal Equilibrium
4.5 Ordinary Canonical Ensemble (OCE)
4.5.1 Canonical distribution and partition function
4.5.2 The difference between P(En) and Pn
4.5.3 Averages within the OCE
4.5.4 Entropy and free energy
4.5.5 Fluctuations in the OCE
4.5.6 Thermodynamics revisited
4.5.7 Generalized susceptibilities
4.6. GRAND CANONICAL ENSEMBLE (GCE) 169
4.6 Grand Canonical Ensemble (GCE)
4.6.1 Grand canonical distribution and partition function
4.6.2 Entropy and Gibbs-Duhem relation
4.6.3 Generalized susceptibilities in the GCE
4.6.4 Fluctuations in the GCE
4.6.5 Gibbs ensemble
4.7. STATISTICAL ENSEMBLES FROM MAXIMUM ENTROPY 173
4.7 Statistical Ensembles from Maximum Entropy
4.7.1 µCE
4.7.2 OCE
4.7.3 GCE
4.8 Ideal Gas Statistical Mechanics
4.8.1 Maxwell velocity distribution
4.8.2 Equipartition
4.8.3 Quantum statistics and the Maxwell-Boltzmann limit
4.9 Selected Examples
4.9.1 Spins in an external magnetic field
4.9.2 Negative temperature (!)
4.9.3 Adsorption
4.9.4 Elasticity of wool
4.9.5 Noninteracting spin dimers
4.10. STATISTICAL MECHANICS OF MOLECULAR GASES 189
4.10 Statistical Mechanics of Molecular Gases
4.10.1 Separation of translational and internal degrees of freedom
4.10.2 Ideal gas law
4.10.3 The internal coordinate partition function
4.10.4 Rotations
4.10.5 Vibrations
4.10.6 Two-level systems : Schottky anomaly
4.10.7 Electronic and nuclear excitations
4.11. APPENDIX I : ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES 199
4.11 Appendix I : Additional Examples
4.11.1 Three state system
4.11.2 Spins and vacancies on a surface
4.11.3 Fluctuating interface
4.11.4 Dissociation of molecular hydrogen
Noninteracting Quantum Systems
5.1 References
5.2 Statistical Mechanics of Noninteracting Quantum Systems
5.2.1 Bose and Fermi systems in the grand canonical ensemble
5.2.2 Maxwell-Boltzmann limit
5.2.3 Single particle density of states
5.3. QUANTUM IDEAL GASES : LOW DENSITY EXPANSIONS 211
5.3 Quantum Ideal Gases : Low Density Expansions
5.3.1 Expansion in powers of the fugacity
5.3.2 Virial expansion of the equation of state
5.3.3 Ballistic dispersion
5.4 Entropy and Counting States
5.5 Photon Statistics
5.5.1 Thermodynamics of the photon gas
5.5.2 Classical arguments for the photon gas
5.5.3 Surface temperature of the earth
5.5.4 Distribution of blackbody radiation
5.6. LATTICE VIBRATIONS : EINSTEIN AND DEBYE MODELS 223
5.5.5 What if the sun emitted ferromagnetic spin waves?
5.6 Lattice Vibrations : Einstein and Debye Models
5.6.1 One-dimensional chain
5.6.2 General theory of lattice vibrations
5.6.3 Einstein and Debye models
5.6.4 Melting and the Lindemann criterion
5.6.5 Goldstone bosons
5.7 The Ideal Bose Gas
5.7.1 General formulation for noninteracting systems
5.7.2 Ballistic dispersion
5.7.3 Isotherms for the ideal Bose gas
5.7.4 The λ-transition in Liquid 4
5.7.5 Fountain effect in superfluid 4
5.7.6 Bose condensation in optical traps
5.7.7 Example problem from Fall 2004 UCSD graduate written exam
5.8 The Ideal Fermi Gas
5.8.1 Grand potential and particle number
5.8.2 The Fermi distribution
5.8.3 T = 0 and the Fermi surface
5.8.4 Spin-split Fermi surfaces
5.8.5 The Sommerfeld expansion
5.8.6 Chemical potential shift
5.8.7 Specific heat
5.8.8 Magnetic susceptibility and Pauli paramagnetism
5.8.9 Landau diamagnetism
5.8.10 White dwarf stars
Interacting Systems
6.1 References
6.2 Ising Model
6.2.1 Definition
6.2.2 Ising model in one dimension
6.2.3 H = 0
6.2.4 Chain with free ends
6.2.5 Ising model in two dimensions : Peierls’ argument
6.2.6 Two dimensions or one?
6.2.7 High temperature expansion
6.3 Nonideal Classical Gases
6.3.1 The configuration integral
6.3.2 One-dimensional Tonks gas
6.3.3 Mayer cluster expansion
6.3.4 Cookbook recipe
6.3.5 Lowest order expansion
6.3.6 Hard sphere gas in three dimensions
6.3.7 Weakly attractive tail
6.3.8 Spherical potential well
6.3.9 Hard spheres with a hard wall
6.4 Liquid State Physics
6.4.1 The many-particle distribution function
6.4.2 Averages over the distribution
6.4.3 Virial equation of state
6.4.4 Correlations and scattering
6.4.5 Correlation and response
6.4.6 BBGKY hierarchy
6.4.7 Ornstein-Zernike theory
6.4.8 Percus-Yevick equation
6.4.9 Ornstein-Zernike approximation at long wavelengths
6.5 Coulomb Systems : Plasmas and the Electron Gas
6.5.1 Electrostatic potential
6.5.2 Debye-H¨uckel theory
6.5.3 The electron gas : Thomas-Fermi screening
6.6 Polymers
6.6.1 Basic concepts
6.6.2 Polymers as random walks
6.6.3 Flory theory
6.6.4 Polymers and solvents
6.7 Lee-Yang Theory
6.7.1 Analytic properties of the partition function
6.7.2 Electrostatic analogy
6.7.3 Example
6.8 Appendix : Potts Model in One Dimension
6.8.1 Definition
6.8.2 Transfer matrix
7.1 References
7.2 The van der Waals system
7.2.1 Equation of state
7.2.2 Analytic form of the coexistence curve near the critical point
7.2.3 History of the van der Waals equation
7.3 Fluids, Magnets, and the Ising Model
7.3.1 Lattice gas description of a fluid
7.3.2 Phase diagrams and critical exponents
7.3.3 Gibbs-Duhem relation for magnetic systems
7.3.4 Order-disorder transitions
7.4 Mean Field Theory
7.4.1 h = 0
7.4.2 Specific heat
7.4.3 h = 0
7.4.4 Magnetization dynamics
7.4.5 Beyond nearest neighbors
7.4.6 Ising model with long-ranged forces
7.5 Variational Density Matrix Method
7.5.1 The variational principle
7.5.2 Variational density matrix for the Ising model
7.5.3 Mean Field Theory of the Potts Model
7.5.4 Mean Field Theory of the XY Model
7.6. LANDAU THEORY OF PHASE TRANSITIONS 371
7.6 Landau Theory of Phase Transitions
7.7.2 Calculation of the response functions
7.8 Global Symmetries
7.8.1 Symmetries and symmetry groups
7.8.2 Lower critical dimension
7.8.3 Continuous symmetries
7.8.4 Random systems : Imry-Ma argument
7.9 Ginzburg-Landau Theory
7.9.1 Ginzburg-Landau free energy
7.9.2 Domain wall profile
7.9.3 Derivation of Ginzburg-Landau free energy
7.11.2 Ising antiferromagnet in an external field
7.11.3 Canted quantum antiferromagnet
7.11.4 Coupled order parameters
Nonequilibrium Phenomena
8.1 References
8.2 Equilibrium, Nonequilibrium and Local Equilibrium
8.3 Boltzmann Transport Theory
8.3.1 Derivation of the Boltzmann equation
8.3.2 Collisionless Boltzmann equation
8.3.3 Collisional invariants
8.3.4 Scattering processes
8.3.5 Detailed balance
8.3.6 Kinematics and cross section
8.3.7 H-theorem
8.4. WEAKLY INHOMOGENEOUS GAS 429
8.4 Weakly Inhomogeneous Gas
8.5. RELAXATION TIME APPROXIMATION 431
8.5 Relaxation Time Approximation
8.5.1 Approximation of collision integral
8.5.2 Computation of the scattering time
8.5.3 Thermal conductivity
8.5.4 Viscosity
8.5.5 Oscillating external force
8.5.6 Quick and Dirty Treatment of Transport
8.5.7 Thermal diffusivity, kinematic viscosity, and Prandtl number
8.6 Diffusion and the Lorentz model
8.6.1 Failure of the relaxation time approximation
8.6.2 Modified Boltzmann equation and its solution
8.9.1 Boltzmann equation for quantum systems
8.9.2 The Heat Equation
8.9.3 Calculation of Transport Coefficients
8.9.4 Onsager Relations
8.10 Stochastic Processes
8.10.1 Langevin equation and Brownian motion
8.10.2 Langevin equation for a particle in a harmonic well
8.10.3 Discrete random walk
8.10.4 Fokker-Planck equation
8.10.5 Brownian motion redux
8.10.6 Master Equation
8.11. APPENDIX I : BOLTZMANN EQUATION AND COLLISIONAL INVARIANTS 469
8.11 AppendixI: BoltzmannEquation andCollisional Invariants
8.12 Appendix II : Distributions and Functionals
8.13 Appendix III : General Linear Autonomous Inhomogeneous
8.14. APPENDIX IV : CORRELATIONS IN THE LANGEVIN FORMALISM 481
8.14 Appendix IV : Correlations in the Langevin formalism
8.15. APPENDIX V : KRAMERS-KR ¨ONIG RELATIONS 483
8.15 Appendix V : Kramers-Kr¨onig Relations
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

Ratings: (0)|Views: 24|Likes:
Termodinamika dan statistik
Termodinamika dan statistik

More info:

Published by: M Naufal Aqil Farhan on Feb 27, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/06/2013

pdf

text

original

You're Reading a Free Preview
Pages 11 to 130 are not shown in this preview.
You're Reading a Free Preview
Pages 141 to 389 are not shown in this preview.
You're Reading a Free Preview
Pages 400 to 413 are not shown in this preview.
You're Reading a Free Preview
Pages 424 to 458 are not shown in this preview.
You're Reading a Free Preview
Pages 469 to 502 are not shown in this preview.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->