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Molecular Basis of Flowering

Molecular Basis of Flowering

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Published by: shailendra on Feb 24, 2009
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06/14/2009

 
Molecular Basis of Photoperiodic Controlof Flowering in Shortday and Long DayPlants
 
Molecular Basis of Photoperiodic Control of Flowering in Short day and Long Day Plants
ASSIGNMENTMBB 299
Abhay Kumar
PhD Student, 9443Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
Submitted to:-
Dr. Madan PalSr. Scientist
Division of Plant Physiology
Indian Agricultural Research Institute
2008
2
 
Molecular Basis of Photoperiodic Control of Flowering inShort day and Long Day Plants
The rotation of our planet results in regular changes in environmental cues such asday length and temperature, and organisms have evolved a molecular oscillator thatallows them to anticipate these changes and adapt their development accordingly. In many plants, the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is controlled by photoperiod,which synchronizes flowering with favorable seasons of the year.One of the mostimportant developmental decisions in a plant’s life is when to switch from vegetative tofloral (reproductive) growth. If flowering is initiated at the wrong time of the year, it willaffect the number of seeds produced and significantly reduce reproductive success.In addition to its role in directly initiating flowering, light also serves as anentraining signal in resetting a plants circadian clock. It is likely that all five phytochromes regulate red/far-red entrainment signals. The circadian system is crucial for  photoperiod perception, as alterations in clock function alter the induction of floweringtime. In fact, many genes that regulate clock function were originally isolated as floral-timing mutants (Doyle, M.R., 2002). From work on
toc1
,
cca1
and
lhy
mutant lines, amolecular model for the central oscillator was proposed (Alabadi, D., 2001). In thismodel,
TOC1
expression in the night activates
CCA1
and
 LHY 
; the resulting
CCA1/LHY 
expression in the morning represses
TOC1
expression. This repression is relieved bydecay in
CCA1/LHY 
expression, so that
TOC1
levels increase again in the subsequentnight, closing the 24 hour loop. New data (Doyle, M.R., 2002) argue against this model,however, as it appears that
 LHY 
and
CCA1
are not absolutely required for circadianfunction. This has led to an alternative model, in which sequential periodic expression of 
TOC1
and its four homologs generates the oscillator (Matsushika, A., 2002). Regardlessof the exact molecular details of the oscillator, it is clear that the circadian systemintegrates photoperiod Perception (Yanovsky, M.J. 2002)
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