temperature, chemical and electrical factors, bombardment by particles chargedand electrically neutral, etc. The remaining portion of the material beyond thesuperficial layer is the
From the point of view of standardization, the superficial layer is de-fined as follows
- a layer of material, limited by the real surface of an object,which includes this surface and that portion of the material inward from thereal surface which exhibits changed physical, and sometimes chemical proper-ties in comparison with properties of the material core.The above definition basically includes the
technical superficial layer
which constitutes the domain of shaping, research and technical utiliza-tion and which is the subject of technical science. The introduction seemsalso possible of another concept: that of a
physical superficial layer
,with a thickness of several angstroms (thus several orders of magnitudethinner than that of the technical superficial layer), within which thechange in physical and chemical properties is greatest. Further in thisbook we will consider mainly the technical superficial layer.It should be emphasized that the properties of the superficial layer, i.e., itsstructure and properties - imparted to it as a result of treating of the object,depend predominantly on the type of this treatment - on the technology of shaping of the object (both by material reduction and without reduction) aswell as on the technology of giving it special physico-chemical properties.The obtained service properties are usually not constant with time:– they may change spontaneously, in a natural manner, without the par-ticipation of extraneous technical factors, e.g., as a result of naturalaging, stress-relieving;– they may change non-spontaneously, under the influence of extrane-ous technical factors (forces) occurring during the service of the object,e.g. as a result of loading, wear, chemical action of the environment.
The structure of the superficial layer
, constituting a “set of elementsof the real surface of the object and structure of its superficial layer, suchas geometrical elements of the surface and physical properties of the ma-terial, e.g., grain size,” evidently also depends on the type of treatment.Researchers emphasize the zoned structure of the superficial layer,which is a derivative of the type of treatment, and define the concept of the superficial layer zone, its internal limit and thickness.
The superficial layer zone
is the portion of the superficial layer, the vol-ume of which is determined by the existence of a given property. The indi-vidual layers may permeate one another, with a transition from one to theother, or they may occupy together the same part of space.
The internal limit of the superficial layer
is the theoretical surfacedetermined by points corresponding to boundary values of that property of the superficial layer for which the thickness of that layer, thus defined,
Superficial layer (Eng), couche superficielle (Fr), poverkhnostniy sloy (Rus), Oberflächenschicht (Ger
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