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Suvannabumi_U San Win

Suvannabumi_U San Win

Ratings: (0)|Views: 12|Likes:
Published by amaradipa
History
History

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: amaradipa on Feb 28, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/26/2013

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original

 
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OD;pH0if; ( ord kif;okawoe )
 ok 0 blrdokaw o e
ed'gef;
jrefrmouú&mZf 841 ckESpf(at'D- 1479) wGifyJcl; ([H om0wD) bk&if&mrm"dywd("r®apwD) rif;onfuvsmPD odrfausmufpma&;xd k;onfhtcg ok0PÖblrdt&yfü ]Ak omoem pwifwnfí &[ef; a,muf sm;? &[ef;rdef;r? omraPa,muf sm;? omraPrdef;rwd k hjzpfMuukef\}[kazmfjycJ h onf/ ¤if;ok0PÖblrd onf  ok"r®yl&oxH k? a*gVrwå  duESifhwdkufuvm;[ktrnfrsm;jzpfaMumif;? rif;aejynfawmf onfauvmoayg bk&m;\ taemufajrmufaxmif hü&S daMumif;? NrdKY wpf0ufum; awmifay:ü&S dí? tjcm;wbufum; nDaomajrjyif jzpfaMumif; a&;xdk;azmfjy\/ txufyg uvsmPD odrfausmufpmñTef;twd kif;vd kufí 19 &mpkaES mif;yd kif;umv a&S;a[mif;okawoe t&mxrf;rsm;jzpfMuaom a'gufwmtD;? azmfcrf;rm;ESif h rpöwmawmfpdefcd kwdk Y ESpfOD;onfrGefjynfe,f? oxH kc½d kif? bD;vif;NrdKY e,fauvmoawmifajcod k Y uGif;qif;avhvmcJ hMu\/ auvmoawmifajc0if;u&G mESif huif;&G m tMum;ü a&S;ok0PÖblrdNrdKY ½dk; ESifhusHK;wd kY t<uif;tusefrsm;ud k awG Y cJ h&aMumif; ¤if;wd k Y \ tpD&ifcHpmrsm;wGif toD;oD;azmfjycJ hMum\/ 1958 - ckESpf odk Y a&mufonfhtcg a&S;a[mif;okawoeñTefMum;a&;0efOD;zd k;vwf? jrefrmEd kifiH ord kif;aumfr&SiftzG J Y 0ifygarmu©vkpfESif ha'gufwma':oif;Munfwd k Y tzG J Y  onfauvmoawmifajcrS wd kufukvm;NrdKUa[mif;ae&mudkvnf;aumif;? ,ck oxH kNrdKY ae&m&S doxH kNrdKY a[mif;wd k Y ud kvnf;aumif;? uGif;qif azmfxkwfay;cJhMu\/ 1974 ckESpfodk Ya&muf onfUtcg? ok0PÖblrdNrdKY a[mif;wl;azmfokawoevkyfief;udk a&S;a[mif;okawoeXmeu pwifaqmif&GufcJ h&m? 1975 ckESpfrS1978 ckESpftxdrGefjynfe,f? oxH kc½d kif? bD;vif;NrdKY e,f? auvmoawmifajcrSt,uf orESif h0if;uaus;&G mwl;azmfrIrsm;? 1986-ckESpfrS? 2000jynf hESpf txdusdKuú omNrdKYa[mif;wl;azmf okawoevkyfief;ESif h2000 jynfhESpfoxH kNrdKY a[mif; wl;azmf okawoe vkyfief;rsm;ud kaqmif&GufcJ hNyD;jzpfygonf/ þuJ h od k Y wl;azmf okawoevkyfief;rsm;rSyPmrwl;azmfrItpD&ifcHpmrsm; toD;oD;azmfjyxm;csuft& ok0PÖblrdNrdKY a[mif;acwf(bDpD3 &mpkESpf) txda&S;usEd kifaom taxmuf txm;rsm;udkcd kifcdkifrmrmawG Y &S d&aMumif;rod&ao;yJ? taxmuftxm;trsm;pkrS m yk*Hacwf(c&pf11-&mpkESpf)  ,Ofaus;rItaxmuftxm;rsm;om jzpfaMumif;od&ygonf/
 
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OD;pH0if; ( ord kif;okawoe )
 ok 0 blrd okaw o e
tjcm;wpfzufwGif1980 jynf hvGefESpfrsm;rSpí aumif;uif"gwfyH kavhvmrIrSwpfqif h? a&S;NrdKUa[mif; ae&mrsm;pG mud kauvmoawmifajca'oESif hteD;0ef;usifa'owd k Y rSawG Y &S dcJ h&\/ auvmoawmif\ajrmufbuf wGifppfawmif;? usdKuú omESif haumhxif;NrdKY a[mif;rsm;? auvmoawmifajcteD;wGifZkwf okwf&G mBuD;? Zkwf okwf&G m uav;? ZG J*vm? 0d kif;ywf? rk oif? rkqd k;ruRef; (uuwpf)? vdyfcHk;paom NrdKY a[mif;rsm;&S dMu\/ bD;vif;jrpf0 uRef;ay:ta&SY ydkif;ü uwd kufuav;? uwd kufBuD;? qdyfuRef;? r&rf;ukef;? 'H k0ef;paom NrdKY a[mif;ukef;rsm;ud k awGY &\/ ¤if;awmifbufü oxHkNrdKUa[mif;BuD;teD; uyfwnf&Sdae\/ oxH kteD;rSqifjzLuRef;ukef;onf  oxH kNrdKUa[mif;tapmyd kif; acwftaxmuftxm;[k qd kEd kif\/ oxH k\taY&SawmifbufwGif rkwårNrdKY teD;ü prÜ ge*d k&f(vuGef;Asnf;) NrdKY a[mif;ud kawG Y &\/ ¤if;azmfjyyg NrdKY a[mif;ukef;rsm;ud kuGif;qif;okawoejyKonf htcg  ok0PÖblrdacwftxda&S;usEd kif onf htaxmuftxm;vufa&;pif;tkwfcsyfrsm;ud kae&mwd kif;ü &S mazGawG Y &S d&\/ rkwå rauG Y yifv,furf;½d k;wef;ay:wGifwnf&S daom ,if;NrdKY a[mif;ukef;rsm;rS m a&S;tcgu yifv,fqdyfurf;NrdKY rsm; jzpfcJ haMumif; oufaotaxmuftxm;tjzpfa&S;acwf oH k;aiG'*F g;rsm;? ykwD;aphrsm;ESif h ,Ofaus;rIqd kif&m ajrrD;zkwf ½kyfvH k;? ½kyfwk? ½kyf<uyH krsm;udkvnf; awGY &ygonf/  þNrdKY a[mif;rsm;onfyH k o@meft& a&S;usonf hvu©Pm&S dí? yk*Hacwfrwd kifrDu jrefrmhNrdKY a[mif;rsm;ü awG Y &avh&S daom vufa&;pif;trSwftom;yg tkwfcsyfrsm;ud kvnf; NrdKY ½d k;ESif htaqmufttH kukef;a[mif;rsm;wGif &S mazGawG Y &Sd&ojzif h a&S;a[mif; ok0PÖblrdacwftwGif; tusHK;0ifvsuf&S d onf[k,lqygonf/  þuJhodkY ajrjyifuGif;qif;okawoeawGY&Sdcsufrsm;ESifh ,cifokawoDBuD;rsm; uGif;qif;wl;azmf okawoeawGY &S dcsufrsm;ud kaygif;pyfNyD; ok0PÖblrd ,Ofaus;rIe,fajrud kazmfxkwf&ef MudK;yrf;xm;ygonf/  ok0PÖblrdNrdKY awmfa[mif;wnfae&mESif hywf oufí taY &Sawmiftm&Sa'otwGif; ae&mtoD;oD;ud k  owfrSwf ñTefjyxm;onfvnf;&S d\/ taY &Sawmiftm&Sa'owpfckvH k;udkac:qd kjcif;jzpfaMumif; NcHKiH k oH k;oyfxm; yHkudkvnf;awGY &\/ od kY &mwGifþuGif;qif;okawoe awG Y&Sdcsufwdk Yt& atmufjrefrmEd kifiH? rGefjynfe,f?  oxH kc½dkifa'otwGif;rSoxH kNrdKUa[mif;BuD;ud k om ok0PÖblrd trSefjzpfaMumif; tqd kjyKwifjyxm;ygonf/
 
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OD;pH0if; ( ord kif;okawoe )
 ok 0 blrdokaw o e
 ok0PÖ blrdokawoe
jrefrmEdkifiHonf ok0PÖblrdNrdKYa[mif;wnf&mXmejzpfaMumif;uGif;qif;okawoe taxmuftxm;ESif hwuGoufaoxljyovk dí þpm ud ka&;ygonf/ ajray:wGifawmzH k;vsufuG ,faysmufaeao;aom NrdKY a[mif; rsm;ud kpepfwus uGif;qif;avhvmjcif; rjyKEk difao;ouJ h ok d Y ajratmuf wGifepfjrKyfaeqJ]ok0PÖblrd} ,Ofaus;rItarGtESpfrsm;ud kokawoDwk d Y  tenf;i,frQomodMuao;\/ ok0PÖblrd ,Ofaus;rIysH Y ES H hwnf&S d&m a&S;a[mif;oxH ka'ood k Y toG m; tvmcufcJjcif;? e,fajrrNidrf;csrf;ao;jcif;wk d Y aMumif hokawoDrsm; ta&muf taygufenf;aeygao;onf/ xdkYtjyif y"meusaom tcsdKYNrdKYa[mif;ae&mrsm;ud k1970 jynf hvGefESpfrsm;wGifrSokawoDwk d Y awG Y cJ hygonf/ þuJ h ok d Y  aumif;uif"gwfyH kzwf½Iavhvmjcif;rSwpfqif htopfawG Y &aom NrdKY a[mif; ae&mrsm;ud kþpmwef;üwifjyxm;ygonf/

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