Foreign Policy Program
Will the EU be still attractive for acandidate country to join?
those that received immigrant workers some generationsago, new members to the EU will not necessarily meanparties in an already crowded space. Enlargement is liter-ally widening the European geography o democracy, law, values, economic interests, and security. Tis happens only when a candidate country is ready to assume the rightsand obligations o membership, and only when problemsthat may provoke ears on the part o European citizens arealready solved through the now well-disciplined accessionprocess dictated by the European Commission, supervisedby the European Parliament, and governed by the memberstates.At the point when a candidate country is ready or ull-membership and it becomes certain that that enlargementwill be benecial or Europe and its citizens, the questionturns to the EU’s readiness. Will the EU be still attractiveor a candidate country to join? Europe has a great chanceto demonstrate once more its capacity to come back tobusiness with enhanced institutions and so power tools.Four major scenarios, or narrative concepts, can mark thepresent analysis.
Te single market, together with regional peace andstability, has been the greatest achievement o the Euro-pean integration process. Notwithstanding the eurozone’smanagement troubles, in many elds with direct relevanceto the citizens’ daily lie and the economy, major decisionsare taken at the EU level: competition rules, social poli-cies, consumer protection, environmental standards, oodsaety, and regional development. Tis is world’s largesteconomy with a GDP o €12.6 trillion, a hal billion people,and 20 percent o the global trade. Yet the single market isar rom an accomplished task. Despite 6 million peopleworking abroad in another member country and 2.5million Erasmus exchange students so ar, internal mobility is not yet a parameter o a social cohesion among dierentnations.On a more technical level, the principle o mutual recog-nition (when a product is sold legally in one Europeancountry, it should be likewise allowed in other markets)is well established, but national technical regulations andcertications may have the eect o excluding new prod-ucts rom the EU market and limiting the ree movemento goods. Even more than manuactured goods, servicesare crucial or urther growth, job creation, and innova-tion. In 2011, nine out o ten new jobs were created inEurope’s service sectors. However, the European servicesmarket remains ragmented. Te European services direc-tive is not well implemented, national rules and proceduresare burdensome, and an eective recognition o nationalproessional qualications and stringent rules or regulatedproessions require more eorts by the member states. Teree access to public markets, too, is still a challenge. Teintroduction o e-procurement can improve eciency,market openness, transparency, and competition, resultingin less public spending.Moreover, the EU could gain 4 percent o GDP by creatinga true single digital market by 2020. Tis corresponds toa gain o €500 billion and means that the digital singlemarket alone could have an impact similar to the 1992single market program. But signicant eorts need to bemade to unleash the digital single market’s great potential.While e-commerce is rapidly taking o at national levels,its cross-border development is lagging ar behind.
Tere is no doubt that, rom the beginning, the oundingathers’ vision was that o a ederal political union. Teunctionalist approach was adopted to pave the way towarda political union, through the successul steps o the coaland steel community, the common market, the social area,and the monetary union. For a long time, the parallelprocesses o deepening and widening o the Europeanproject were coupled to create the dynamics that enhanceand justiy each other. Nevertheless, the ederalist visionhas also developed an instinct o preserving the coherenceo the existing Union, which could have otherwise beendiluted by including too many new member states.As a leading ounding ather o second generation, JacquesDelors, proposed an answer to the end o cold war in 1989in the rapid creation o a ederal union as the core o thewider Europe dened as “common European home” by thelast Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachov. Tis ederal Europe’sbasic design would correspond to a strong common body o supranational institutions armed with ederal powers