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Published by: zabolotnyi61 on Feb 28, 2013
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By Anastasia SHUMAN 
was an eminent Austrian neurologist andpsychiatrist of Jewish origin. Freud is undoubtedly one of thecritical thinkers who has most influenced the thought of hiscentury. Sigmund Freud was born on May 6th 1856 in Freiberg,Austria (today
, Czech Republic). Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, a widely famous approach to cure neuroses bypsychological analysis, which he defined as not only a method of investigation of mental processes, as well as a therapeuticmethod, but also a theory of psychic functioning. Freud was anatheist who fought against religion, which he considered anobstacle to human intelligence and its development.Psychoanalysis as a theory of psychic workings allowed Freud togive an explanation of collective phenomena such as theprohibition of incest. Freud taught at the University of Viennafrom 1883 until he had to move to London in 1938 to escape anti-Semitism.Born into a Jewish family from Bohemia who had fled to Vienna, Austria, Freud showed veryearly an aptitude for studies and read Shakespeare at the early age of 8 years old. With acurious mind, the young Freud shared his time with several centers of interest including, inparticular, medicine, but also law and philosophy. Being 17 years old he completed high school.Focusing in 1876 on the study of the nervous system, Freud obtained his medical degree in1881.In spite of doing brilliant medical and biological studies,Freud had to give up a career in academia because of hismodest income and his Jewish origins. Instead, Freudopened a medical practice and became interested more andmore in mental disorders. Freud first directed his post-graduate interest towards neurology. In October 1885,Freud joined the French neurologist Professor Jean-MartinCharcot (see the picture on the right) in Paris and gainedfrom his work on hysteria, also becoming familiar withhypnosis. At the turn of19
and 20th centuries, Freuddistinguished himself by giving the world a new medicaldiscipline, psychoanalysis. Breaking with the choice betweenphysical causes and simulation to understand hysteria,Freud developed an innovative approach to the humanmind by providing a fundamental role to the unconscious.Back in Vienna, Freud worked with Josef Breuer on the case of 
 Anna O
., who was diagnosed ashysterical, and whose examination laid the foundation of psychoanalysis, including its links tosexuality. While he practiced medicine traditional nerve in his medical practice, Freud decideddue to a lack of convincing results, to try the method of hypnosis. It is in the now famous caseof 
 Anna O.
that Freud’s
research first obtained conclusive results, The fundamental discovery inthese studies were the link between the symptoms of the patient and her repressed memoriesof which she was
unaware. Freud’s
method took a new turn as he abandoned hypnosis for free

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