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Ceramic Materials Science and Engineering [Chapters 16-18]

Ceramic Materials Science and Engineering [Chapters 16-18]

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Published by Emmanuel Alemaka
Resource material for students and researchers in the fields of Glass Technology, Ceramics materials Science and Engineering
Resource material for students and researchers in the fields of Glass Technology, Ceramics materials Science and Engineering

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Published by: Emmanuel Alemaka on Mar 01, 2013
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16
Mechanical Testing
CHAPTER PREVIEW
The concepts of stress and strain and the elastic moduli should already be familiar. Whereceramics differ from most metals and polymers is that at room temperature most of them arebrittle. Flaws play a major, often dominating, role in the mechanical behavior of ceramics. Asa result, obtaining properties such as elastic moduli is often more difficult than it would be formetals: preparing the sample can lead to the introduction of flaws. Stress–strain curves forceramics are usually obtained using a bending test rather than a tensile test. We need only tomake our ceramic into a rectangular block. The brittle behavior of ceramics gives them lowfracture toughness, a property that can most conveniently be obtained from indentation testing.A key point from this chapter is that when we use ceramics in load-bearing applications weneed to understand the importance of flaws and how to incorporate them into our designapproach.
16.1 PHILOSOPHY
The classical view of ceramic materials includes thefollowing:1. They are brittle.2. Dislocations are not important because they do notmove.3. They are polycrystalline and fracture along grainboundaries.Once again the classical view of ceramics and manyof our preconceived ideas of how they behave are notalways correct.
᭿
We can benda sheet of silicon into a tube.
᭿
We can bend an alumina fiber into a circle.
᭿
Dislocations move ahead of crack tips, are present atheterojunctions, and can be produced in large numbersduring single-crystal growth.
᭿
Single-crystal ceramics also fracture (Figure 16.1shows an Nd-doped YAG single-crystal boule thatfractured during growth).The modern view of ceramicsis therefore verydifferent:1. We may be using the ceramic as a thin film wherestresses may bevery high.2. Deformation at high temperatures may be important.3. In some special “new” ceramics, displacive transfor-mations become important.It will beimportant to keep these ideas in mind whenyou read older texts. We are not going to provide a treatiseon mechanical properties of ceramics. There are manyexisting books that do and some of these are listed at theend of the chapter. What we will do is look at what isspecial for ceramics.The general need is to understand the response of amaterial to an applied stress. The stress may be appliedexternally or induced by altering other parameters such astemperature (which can cause a phase transformation).The fundamental idea is the link to bonding. In Chapter4 we described how the Young’s modulus is related directlyto the bond-energy curve. In Chapter 12 we described thenature of dislocations in ceramics.So the following three chapters have three specialthemes
᭿
Mechanical testing—how to do it plus the fundamen-tals of elastic constants, etc.
᭿
Plastic deformation and how it is accommodated
᭿
Fracture and how to control itThe starting point for most discussions of mechanicalproperties of materials is a stress–strain (
σ
ε
) curve fora material in tension. Figure16.2 shows
σ
ε
curves forthree different materials at room temperature.
 Material I 
: This has a high Young’s modulus, high failurestress, low ductility, low toughness, and fractureswithout significant plastic deformation.
This behavioris characteristic of many ceramics.
16.1
Philosophy
..............................................................................................................................................................
289
 
290
......................................................................................................................................................
Mechanical Testing
limited toughness.
This behavior is characteristic of many elastomers
.The strength of ceramics is affected by manyfactors,and this complexity is illustrated in Figure 16.3. The com-position and microstructure are particularly significantand mechanical properties depend strongly on these char-acteristics. Figure 16.4 shows two specific examples that
1 cm
FIGURE 16.1
Cracking in an Nd-doped YAG boule.
σ
Material IMaterial IIMaterial III
ε
FIGURE 16.2
Idealized stress–strain curves for different materialsclasses.
 Material II 
: This has moderate strength, moderate ductil-ity, deforms plastically prior to failure, and is thetoughest of the three.
This behavior is characteristicof many metals
.
 Material III 
: This has a low Young’s modulus, is veryductile, and has low ultimate tensile strength and
FracturestressFlowstress
 
SurfaceconditionPores andcracksChemicalcompositionRawmaterialsFabricationTextureStrengthExternalfactorsProcessingPhasedistribution andgrain sizeTemperature,environmentandtestconditionsFiringFinishing
FIGURE 16.3
Factors affecting the mechanical properties ofceramics.
00.51.0Fractional Porosity100200Strength(MPa)0240Densityg/cm
3
(A)
2050100200Mean Grain Diameter,
μ
m3570140MOR(MPa)
(B)FIGURE 16.4
(a) Effect of porosity on the strength of polycrystal-line Al
2
O
3
. (b) Effect of grain size on the strength of BeO.
 
illustrate the role of microstructure onthe strength of ceramics. In Figure 16.4a the strength of a porous poly-crystalline alumina is shown to decrease much morerapidly than its density. The reason is that pores act toconcentrate stress, which will not be uniform throughoutthe ceramic. The strength of nonporous ceramics decreaseswith increasing grain size as illustrated for the case of BeO in Figure 16.4b. Again, the observed behavior is dueto flaws in the material that act as stress concentrators. Inlarge grains there can be larger flaws. The effect of grainsize is often more complicated than that shown in Figure16.4b when we consider ceramicsin which the grain sizeis just a few micrometers. Figure 16.5 is a compilation of flexural strength results for polycrystalline alumina atroom temperature as a function of grain size. Despite theconsiderable scatter in the data, there are clearly two dis-tinct regions. In both cases strength isproportional to thereciprocal square root of the grain size (
1/2
) with differ-ent constants of proportionality. The reason for this behav-ior is that in addition to the preexisting flaws causingbrittle fracture, there is a competing fracture mechanismthat links dislocations and crack nucleation to subsequentfailure.It is therefore essential thatwhen the mechanical prop-erties of a ceramic material are listed, some details of themicrostructure are also provided. As you can see fromFigure 16.3 the measured value of a mechanical propertymay be affected by the test method. This is particularlytrue in the caseof hardness.High-performance structural ceramics combine thetraditional advantages of ceramics(chemical inertness,high-temperature capabilities, and hardness) with theability to carry a significant tensile stress. The majority of the high-performance ceramics are based on siliconnitride, silicon carbide, zirconia, or alumina. Structuralceramics come in many forms—monoliths, composites,coatings, fibers, and whiskers.
16.2 TYPES OF TESTING
Ideally, before we use a ceramic in a load-bearing applica-tion we would liketo have the following informationabout it:
᭿
Young’s modulus
᭿
Average strength and Weibull modulus
᭿
Toughness
᭿
Crack propagation rate
᭿
Cyclic fatigue resistance
᭿
Creep curves
᭿
Stress rupture dataWe would also like to know these parameters as afunction of temperature, in particular, over the tempera-ture range at which our ceramic component is going to beused. Many different types of tests are used to obtainthe mechanical properties of ceramics. There are majordifferences between how metals are tested compared toceramics:
᭿
It is often difficult to do tension tests on ceramicsbecause of the possibility of introducing flaws.
᭿
Ceramics are stronger in compression than they are intension because of how cracks propagate.
᭿
For ceramics, we need to be concerned with statisticsbecause we don not know where the largest flawsare.Because some mechanical properties depend on howthe material was tested, it is important and necessary toestablish specified test methods. Standard test methodshave been adopted for ceramics. In the United StatesASTM International (originally the American Society forTesting and Materials, ASTM) is the primary organizationdeveloping standards for materials testing. ASTM Com-mittee C-28 on Advanced Ceramics has completed severalstandards and ones related to mechanical properties andtesting are listed in Table 16.1. Specialized subcommitteeswork on specific areas within the field of advanced ceram-ics. Committee C28.01 is involvedwith standards relatedto mechanical properties and performance of monolithicceramics. Committee C28.02 deals with reliability issues.The National Institute of Standards and Technology(NIST) has established several free databases that listmechanical properties of ceramics.
504060100(Grain Size, G)
-1/2
(cm
-1/2
)2080421102050100 Grain Size, G (
μ
m)Hot-pressed and press-forged Al
2
O
3
, 22
°
CKirchner342Charles6233244443355751177-196
°
C30200400600Rice survey(22
°
C)Davidge & Tappin
 p
~ 6%Dewith (
 p
~ 0)Single crystalHeuer & RobertsHot pressed:Linde ALinde BCrandal et al.Press-forgedRhodes et al.FlexureStrength(MPa)
}
Rice
FIGURE 16.5
Compilation of strength data as a function of grainsize for polycrystalline Al
2
O
3
.
16.2
Types of Testing
...................................................................................................................................................
291

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