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Research Methodology”MB0050-Spring Drive Assignment-2012

Research Methodology”MB0050-Spring Drive Assignment-2012

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Published by: Sneha Jena on Mar 01, 2013
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Spring 2012
Master of Business Administration - Semester 3
MB 0050: “Research Methodology”
(Book ID: B1206)
Q1. How is a research problem formulated?Ans:
The problem selected for research may initially be a vague topic. The question to bestudied or the problem to be solved may not be known. Hence the selected problem shouldbe defined and formulated. This is a difficult process. It requires intensive reading of a fewselected articles or chapters in books in order to understand the nature of the problemselected. The process of defining a problem includes:
1. Developing title:
The title should be carefully worded. It should indicate the core of the study, reflect the realintention of the researcher, and show on what is
the focus e.g., “Financing small
industries by commercial banks.” This shows
that the focus is on commercial banks and noton small-scale industries. On the
other hand, if the title is “The Financial Problem o
f Small- 
scale industries”, the
focus is on small-scale industries.
2. Building a conceptual model:
On the basis of our theoretical knowledge of the phenomenon under study, the nature of thephenomenon, its properties /elements and their inter-relations should be identified andstructured into a framework. This conceptual model gives an exact idea of the researchproblem and shows its various properties and variables to be studied. It serves as a basis for the formulation of the objectives of the study, on the hypothesis to be tested .In order to workout a conceptual model we must make a careful and critical study of the available literature onthe subject-matter of the selected research problem .It is for this reason; a researcher isexpected to select a problem for research in his field of specialization. Without adequatebackground knowledge, a researcher cannot grasp and comprehend the nature of theresearch problem.
3. Define the Objective of the Study:
The objectives refer to the questions to be answered through the study. They indicate whatwe are trying to get through the study. The objectives are derived from the conceptual model.They state which elements in the conceptual model-which levels of, which kinds of cases,which properties, and which connections among properties
are to be investigated, but it isthe conceptual model that defines, describes, and states the assumptions underlying theseelements. The objectives may aim at description or explanation or analysis of causalrelationship between variables, and indicate the expected results or outcome of the study.The objectives may be specified in the form of either the statements or the questions.
Q2. What are the characteristics of good research design?Ans:
Horton and Hunt have given following characteristics of scientific research:
1. Verifiable evidence:
That is factual observations which other observers can see and check
2. Accuracy:
That is describing what really exists. It means truth or correctness of a statement or describing things exactly as they are and avoiding jumping to unwarranted conclusions either by exaggeration or fantasizing.
3. Precision:
That is making it as exact as necessary or giving exact number or measurement. This avoidscolorful literature and vague meanings.
4. Systematization:
That is attempting to find all the relevant data, or collecting data in a systematic andorganized way so that the conclusions drawn are reliable. Data based on casual recollectionsare generally incomplete and give unreliable judgments and conclusions.
5. Objectivity:
That is free being from all biases and vested interests. It means observation is unaffected by
the observer’s values, beliefs and preferences to the
extent possible and he is able to seeand accept facts as they are, not as he might wish them to be.
6. Recording:
That is jotting down complete details as quickly as possible. Since human memory is fallible,all data collected are recorded.
7. Controlling conditions:
That is controlling all variables except one and then attempting to examine what happenswhen that variable is varied. This is the basic technique in all scientific experimentation
 allowing one variable to vary while holding all other variables constant.
 8. Training investigators:
That is imparting necessary knowledge to investigators to make them understand what to lookfor, how to interpret in and avoid inaccurate data collection.
Q3. How case study method is useful in business research?Ans
. In-depth analysis of selected cases is of particular value to business research when acomplex set of variables may be at work in generating observed results and intensive study isneeded to unravel the complexities. For instance, an in-
depth study of a firm’s top sales
people and comparison with the worst salespeople might reveal characteristics common tostellar performers. The exploratory investigator is best served by the active curiosity andwillingness to deviate from the initial plan, when the finding suggests new courses of enquiry,might prove more productive.Case study of particular value when a complex set of variables may be working in generatingobserved result and intensive study is needed to unravel the complexities. For example, an indepth study
of a firm’s
top sales people and comparison with worst sales people might revealcharacteristics common to stellar performers. Here again the exploratory investigation is bestserved by an active curiosity and willingness to deviate from the initial plan when findingssuggest new courses of inquiry might prove more productive .It is easy to see how the
exploratory research objectives of generating insights and hypothesis would be well served bythe use of this technique.
Making Case Study Effective
John Dollard has proposed seven criteria for evaluating such adequacy as follows:
The subject must be viewed as a specimen in a cultural series .That is, the case drawn outfrom its total context for the purpose of study must be considered a member of the particular cultural group or community. The scrutiny of the life histories of persons must be done with aview to identify the community value, standard and their shared way of life.
The organic motto of action must be socially relevant .That is, the action of the individualcases must be viewed as a series of reactions to social stimuli or situation .In other words thesocial meaning of behavior must be taken into consideration.
The strategic role of the family group in transmitting the culture must be recognised .That is,in case of an individual being the member of the family, the role of family in shaping hisbehavior must not be overlooked .
The specific method of elaboration of organic material onto social behavior must be clearlyshown. That is case histories that portray in detail how basically a biological organism , theman, gradually blossoms forth into a special person , are especially fruitful.
The continuous related character of experience for childhood through adulthood must bestressed. In other words, the life history must be a configuration depicting the inter-relationshi
ps between the people’s various experiences.
Social situation must be carefully and continuously specified as a factor. One of the important
criteria for the life history is that a person’s life must be shown as unfolding itself in the context
of and partly owing to specific social situations.
The life history material itself must be organised accordingly to some conceptual frame work,this in turn would facilitate generalizations at a higher level.
Q4. Distinguish between schedules and questionnaires?Ans:
There is a difference between a schedule and a questionnaire. A schedule is a form thatthe investigator fills himself through surveying the units or individuals. A questionnaire is aform sent (usually mailed) by an investigator to respondents. The respondent has to fill it andthen send it back to the investigator.
Often, information is collected through questionnaires. The questionnaires are filled withquestions pertaining to the investigation. They are sent to the respondents with a coveringletter soliciting cooperation from the respondents (respondents are the people who respond toquestions in the questionnaire). The respondents are asked to give correct information and tomail the questionnaire back. The objectives of investigation are explained in the coveringletter together with assurance for keeping information provided by the respondents asconfidential. Good questionnaire construction is an important contributing factor to thesuccess of a survey. When questionnaires are properly framed and constructed, they becomeimportant tools by which statements can be made about specific people or entire populations.This method is generally adopted by research workers and other official and non- officialagencies. This method is used to cover large areas of investigation. It is more economical
and free from investigator’s bias. However, it results in many “non
response” situations. The
respondent may be illiterate. The respondent may also provide wrong information due towrong interpretation of questions.

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