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Renewable Energy

Renewable Energy

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Published by mido17619487

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Published by: mido17619487 on Feb 25, 2009
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06/14/2009

 
RENEWABLE ENERGYIMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Efficiency is a measure of the useful energy produced by an energyconversion device compared to the energy that ends up beingconverted to low-quality (useless) heat.
First Law of thermodynamics: In all physical and chemical changes,energy is neither created nor destroyed, but it may be convertedfrom one form to another.
Second Law of thermodynamics: When energy is changed from oneform to another, some of the useful energy is always degraded tolower, quality, more dispersed, less useful energy.
Efficiency is a measure of the useful energy produced by an energyconversion device compared to the energy that ends up beingconverted to low-quality (useless) heat.
First Law of thermodynamics: In all physical and chemical changes,energy is neither created nor destroyed, but it may be convertedfrom one form to another.
Second Law of thermodynamics: When energy is changed from oneform to another, some of the useful energy is always degraded tolower, quality, more dispersed, less useful energy.
The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that the U.S. wastesapproximately 84% of all commercial energy.
While some energy efficient models may cost more initially, theyoften have lower life cycle costs.
Keep the number of steps in an energy conversion process as low aspossible.
COGENERATION
Combined heat and power systems: two useful forms of energy are producedfrom the same fuel source.
Usually heat and electricity.HIDDEN COSTS OF GASOLINE
Government subsidies and tax breaks for oil companies and road builders
Pollution clean up
Military protection of oil supplies in the Middle East
Environmental, health, and social costsENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS-The south facade progressivelycantilevers 15 inches per floor,to minimize solar gain andmaximize usable floor area.GREEN ROOFS
In addition to the spatial and aesthetic benefits, the environmental impactsare lovable... "green roofs reduce stormwater runoff, insulate buildingsleading to lower energy use, clean the air, and control local climate, lesseningthe formation of smog." According to a Chicago city official, "the city expectsto save $4,000 per year in cooling and heating the building due to theinsulating capability of a green roof." In addition, "Green roofs can last fifty toa hundred years as opposed to a fifteen-year roof."
Two types of green roof exist: intensive and extensive.
 
Intensive green roofs are essentially elevated parks. They cansustain shrubs, trees, walkways and benches with their complexstructural support, irrigation, drainage and root protection layers.The foot or more of growing medium needed for an intensive greenroof creates a load of 80-150 pounds (36-68 kilograms) per squarefoot.
Extensive green roofs are relatively light at 15-50 pounds (7-23kilograms) per square foot. They support hearty native ground coverthat requires little maintenance. Extensive green roofs usually existsolely for their environmental benefits and don't function asaccessible rooftop gardens.
IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE HOME
 You can save energy and money by installing insulation, maintainingand upgrading the equipment, and practicing energy-efficientbehaviors. A two-degree adjustment to your thermostat setting(lower in winter, higher in summer) can lowerheating bills by 4% andprevent 500 pounds of CO
2
from entering theatmosphere each year.
 You can save energy and money by installing insulation, maintainingand upgrading the equipment, and practicing energy-efficientbehaviors. A two-degree adjustment to your thermostat setting(lower in winter, higher in summer) can lowerheating bills by 4% andprevent 500 pounds of CO
2
from entering theatmosphere each year.
ENERGY STAR APPLIANCES
When you shop for a new appliance, look for the
EnergyStar
® label—yourassurance that the product saves energy. EnergyStar® appliances have beenidentified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy as the most energy-efficient products in their classes.
If the average American were to equip their home only with products thathave the EnergyStar® label, they would cut their energy bills, as well asgreenhouse gas emissions, by about 30%.SOLAR
Methods of solar energy :
-
The Passive method:
 this is quite basic and is implemented by designing residences in such a wayas to trap heat, typically by using glassed areas just as a greenhouse does.(page 409)
-
The Active method:
 uses specially designed heat collectors where, the storage medium is water,then the heat can be transported by low-power electric pumps to a mainstorage tank to supply the hot water or circulated to radiators for spaceheating.
-
Photo-voltaic (PVs)(solar cells)
 
this is perhaps the most applicable because it is capable of supplyinglarge amounts of energy both on a local and central scale. It is also
 
interesting because the devices (the cells, modules or arrays) are constantlybeing improved by research and development, and production costs arebeing reduced. Modern cells are capable of operating at relatively low lightingintensities providing energy when it is most needed. (page 414)AVIALIBILITY
Solar power is unavailable at night and is reduced when there is cloud cover.Reliable performance requires a means of energy storage or standby powersource.
Locations at high latitudes or with substantial cloud cover offer reducedpotential for solar power use.
Like electricity from nuclear or fossil fuel plants, it can only realistically beused to power transport vehicles by converting light energy into another formof energy (e.g. battery stored electricity or by electrolyzing water to producehydrogen) suitable for transport.WIND ENERGY
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into more useful forms,usually electricity usingwind turbines.
According to theEarth Policy Institute, “Wind is the world’s fastest-growingenergy source with an average annual growth rate of 29 percent over the lastten years.” Most people are familiar with thepinwheel-like designof a windturbine; in rural areas, you’ll often see wind farms lined with giant, slow-spinning blades. The idea is simple: rotating turbine blades gather kineticenergy from the wind, spinning an internal shaft that generates power. Thisprocess is incredibly clean, producing zero emissionsADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Birds killed
Visually intrusive
Shadow flicker
Noise
Clean: low emissions
High net energy efficiency
Moderate costsGEOTHERMAL
Geothermal power is based on using steam (212oF) coming from theearth. There are limited locations where this is viable.Geothermal heat pumps use heat pumps to extract heat energy from theground at normal ground temperatures (30oF-60oF). The geothermal heatpumps have long vertical or horizontal pipes in the ground to assist thecollection of heat from the ground in heating mode, or the rejection of heat to the ground in cooling mode.
BIOMASS
Refers to the living and recently living biological material which can be usedas fuel or for industrial production.
Biomass can be produced from crops, grassy and woody plants, residues fromagriculture or forestry, and the organic component of municipal and industrialwaste.HYDROELECTRIC ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Provides large amount of cheap power
Operates without pollution
Low maintenance & operating costs

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