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Internal Combustion Engines Solution_v1

Internal Combustion Engines Solution_v1

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Published by xLibelle

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Published by: xLibelle on Feb 25, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/10/2014

 
Displacement (m3)
11
Cylinders
6
Bore (m)
0.1326
Stroke (m)
0.1326
Compression Ratio
18
Connecting Rod Length (m)
0.3315
Bmep @ max torque (kPa)
895
Bmep @ max power (kPa)
835
Maximum torque (N-m)
783
Maximum power (kW)
173
Maximum engine speed atmaximum power(RPM)
2261
2.61 Internal Combustion EnginesDesign Project Solution
Here is a possible solution for the design problem.
1. Base Engine
Table 1 below summarizes the main parameters of the base engine
 Table 1 Base Engine Summary
There are two possible methods to size the engine, and they should be consistent witheach other:
Method 1:
( ) ( )
2/
,,
stoichoa HV vi f  m
A F Q N   P 
φ  ρ η η η 
=
(1)
Method 2
:Assume a bmep based on practical limits and fuel-air cycle charts, and solve for the power output:
( )( )( )
2000
 N Vd bmep P 
=
(2)
 
Using the first method, we must determine
 N,,,,,
,,
φ  ρ η η η 
oavi f  m
 
Calculate Engine Speed (N)
 L
2 pS N
max
=
find L (3)Assume B ~ L, so
( )
( ) ( )
4L64B6V
32d
π π 
==
L
cylinders
(4)
m L
1326.06(0.011)46V4
3131d
=    =    =
π π 
 so:RPM2260or ,sec/71.37 )1326.0(2 10m/s N
revs
==
 
Determine
φ
, and
η
f,i
 
Chose r 
c
=18 (maybe a bit high), and
φ
=0.7 (smoke limit, maximum possible fuel we canget in per mass of air). Using Fuel-air cycle results (Fig. 5-9, Heywood p. 182), then
η
f,i
=0.575. Applying a correction factor of around 80%, actual
η
f,i
= 46%. The correctionfactor can be between 80% and 85%; For this case, I chose 80% so that Method 1, and 2,as explained above, are consistent with each other.
Determine IMEP
For phi=0.7, and r 
c
=0.8, we get
( )( )
5.10imepso 5.10 imep
1
 P  Pi
==
, (5) Note that Pi is not atmospheric pressure. At WOT, there is a pressure loss in the intakesystem, due to frictional losses that scale with speed. Pi will be less than atmospheric.Likewise, the exhaust pressure (Pe) is not atmospheric; a higher than atmospheric pressure is needed to pump the gases through the exhaust system. Once the gases leavethe exhaust system and reach ambient conditions, they will expand to atmospheric pressure. Additionally, depending on the opening timing of the exhaust valves, the gasesmight exit at a higher pressure than what is required to overcome the pumping loss in the
 
exhaust system. To get an idea, of the value of Pi, look at Figure 13-13 in the text(Heywood P. 725). For a piston speed of 10 m/s,(6) Now allocate this pumping loss between Pe and Pi. At high speeds around 18% of theloss is on the intake side, and the remaining 82% on the exhaust side. This will beconsistent with volumetric efficiency as explained below. So:Pi= 101 kPa – 0.18(40 kPa) = 93.8 kPaPe=101 kPa + 0.82(40 kPa) = 133.8 kPaWe can now calculate an imep:
( )( )
9kPa.9845.10kPa8.93imep
==
 
Determine Mechanical Efficiency
η
m
;1
imeptfmepimeptfmepimep
m
=    =
η 
(7)where
 pmep fmeptfmpe
+==
 mep)auxiliaryandfriction(rubbingmepfrictiontotal
 From figure 13-7 (Heywood p 722), fmep for a fired engine at 2260 rpm
140 kPa. So
( )
%7.81 9851801 and;18040140
===+=
m
kPakPatfmpe
η 
 
Determine Volumetric Efficiency and
oa
,
 ρ 
 
Using figure 6-8 (Heywood p. 217), assume a volumetric efficiency of 90% for a pistonspeed of 10 m/s. Note that this volumetric efficiency measures the efficiency of theentire intake system. Also note that we have chosen the right pressure loss allocation for the intake system (as calculated in the imep section), consistent with volumetricefficiency. The air density
oa
,
 ρ 
, is just calculated from ideal gas law, at ambientconditions. The value is 1.17 kg/m
3
 40)10(4.0 p)S(4.0Pi)-(Pe
22
====
x pmep

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