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06-Current and Voltage

06-Current and Voltage

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Introduction6.1Electromagnetic voltagetransformers6.2Capacitor voltagetransformers6.3Current transformers6.4Novel instrumenttransformers6.5
6
Current and VoltageTransformers
Chap6-78-97 21/06/02 9:20 Page 78
 
6.1 INTRODUCTION
Whenever the values of voltage or current in a powercircuit are too high to permit convenient directconnection of measuring instruments or relays, couplingis made through transformers. Such 'measuring'transformers are required to produce a scaled downreplica of the input quantity to the accuracy expectedfor the particular measurement; this is made possible bythe high efficiency of the transformer. The performanceof measuring transformers during and following largeinstantaneous changes in the input quantity isimportant, in that this quantity may depart from thesinusoidal waveform. The deviation may consist of astep change in magnitude, or a transient componentthat persists for an appreciable period, or both. Theresulting effect on instrument performance is usuallynegligible, although for precision metering a persistentchange in the accuracy of the transformer may besignificant.However, many protection systems are required tooperate during the period of transient disturbance in theoutput of the measuring transformers that follows asystem fault. The errors in transformer output mayabnormally delay the operation of the protection, orcause unnecessary operations. The functioning of suchtransformers must, therefore, be examined analytically.It can be shown that the transformer can be representedby the equivalent circuit of Figure 6.1, where allquantities are referred to the secondary side.
6
Current and VoltageTransformers
 Network Protection & Automation Guide79
Burden
e
R
 p
L
 p
R
s
L
s
1/1
Figure 6.1: Equivalent circuit of transformer 
Chap6-78-97 21/06/02 9:20 Page 79
 
When the transformer is not 1/1 ratio, this condition canbe represented by energising the equivalent circuit with anideal transformer of the given ratio but having no losses.
6.1.1 Measuring Transformers
 Voltage and current transformers for low primary voltageor current ratings are not readily distinguishable; forhigher ratings, dissimilarities of construction are usual.Nevertheless the differences between these devices lieprincipally in the way they are connected into the powercircuit. Voltage transformers are much like small powertransformers, differing only in details of design thatcontrol ratio accuracy over the specified range of output.Current transformers have their primary windingsconnected in series with the power circuit, and so also inseries with the system impedance. The response of thetransformer is radically different in these two modes of operation.
6.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
In the shunt mode, the system voltage is applied acrossthe input terminals of the equivalent circuit of Figure 6.1.The vector diagram for this circuit is shown in Figure 6.2.The secondary output voltage V 
s
is required to be anaccurate scaled replica of the input voltage V 
 p
over aspecified range of output. To this end, the windingvoltage drops are made small, and the normal fluxdensity in the core is designed to be well below thesaturation density, in order that the exciting current maybe low and the exciting impedance substantiallyconstant with a variation of applied voltage over thedesired operating range including some degree of overvoltage. These limitations in design result in a VT fora given burden being much larger than a typical powertransformer of similar rating. The exciting current, inconsequence, will not be as small, relative to the ratedburden, as it would be for a typical power transformer.
6.2.1 Errors
The ratio and phase errors of the transformer can becalculated using the vector diagram of Figure 6.2.The ratio error is defined as:where:
n
is the nominal ratio
 p
is the primary voltage
s
is the secondary voltageIf the error is positive, the secondary voltage exceeds thenominal value. The turns ratio of the transformer neednot be equal to the nominal ratio; a small turnscompensation will usually be employed, so that the errorwill be positive for low burdens and negative for highburdens.The phase error is the phase difference between thereversed secondary and the primary voltage vectors. It ispositive when the reversed secondary voltage leads theprimary vector. Requirements in this respect are set outin IEC 60044-2. All voltage transformers are required tocomply with one of the classes in Table 6.1.For protection purposes, accuracy of voltagemeasurement may be important during fault conditions,as the system voltage might be reduced by the fault to alow value. Voltage transformers for such types of servicemust comply with the extended range of requirementsset out in Table 6.2.
( )%K
n s p
×
100 
6
    C   u   r   r   e   n    t   a   n    d    V   o    l    t   a   g   e    T   r   a   n   s    f    o   r   m   e   r   s
 Network Protection & Automation Guide80
0.8 - 1.2 x rated voltage0.25 - 1.0 x rated burden at 0.8pf voltage ratio errorphase displacement(%)(minutes)0.1+/- 0.1+/- 50.2+/- 0.2+/- 100.5+/- 0.5+/- 201.0+/- 1.0+/- 403.0+/- 3.0not specified
Table 6.1: Measuring voltage transformer error limits 
Accuracyclass
-V 
 p
s
s
 X 
s
s
R
s
s
s
 
= exciting current
m
θ
= phase angle error
 ps s
= secondary current
= primary current
 p
 p
L
 p
 X 
 p
 p
R
 p
θ
Figure 6.2: Vector diagram for voltage transformer 
 
Chap6-78-97 21/06/02 9:20 Page 80

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