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16-Transformer and Transformer Feeder Prot

16-Transformer and Transformer Feeder Prot



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Published by: Sristick on Feb 25, 2009
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Introduction16.1Winding faults16.2Magnetising inrush16.3Transformer overheating16.4Transformer protection overview16.5Transformer overcurrent protection16.6Restricted earth fault protection16.7Differential protection16.8Stabilisation of differential protectionduring magnetising inrush conditions16.9Combined differential andrestricted earth fault schemes16.10Earthing transformer protection16.11Auto-transformer protection16.12Overfluxing protection16.13Tank-earth protection16.14Oil and gas devices16.15Transformer-feeder protection16.16Intertripping16.17Condition monitoring of transformers16.18Examples of transformer protection16.19
Transformer and Transformer-feeder Protection
Chap16-254-279 17/06/02 9:58 Page 254
The development of modern power systems has beenreflected in the advances in transformer design. This hasresulted in a wide range of transformers with sizesranging from a few kVA to several hundred MVA beingavailable for use in a wide variety of applications.The considerations for a transformer protection packagevary with the application and importance of thetransformer. To reduce the effects of thermal stress andelectrodynamic forces, it is advisable to ensure that theprotection package used minimises the time fordisconnection in the event of a fault occurring within thetransformer. Small distribution transformers can beprotected satisfactorily, from both technical andeconomic considerations, by the use of fuses orovercurrent relays. This results in time-delayedprotection due to downstream co-ordinationrequirements. However, time-delayed fault clearance isunacceptable on larger power transformers used indistribution, transmission and generator applications,due to system operation/stability and cost of repair/length of outage considerations.Transformer faults are generally classified into fivecategories:
winding and terminal faults
core faults
tank and transformer accessory faults
on–load tap changer faults
abnormal operating conditions
sustained or uncleared external faultsFor faults originating in the transformer itself, theapproximate proportion of faults due to each of thecauses listed above is shown in Figure 16.1.
Transformer and Transformer-Feeder Protection
 Network Protection & Automation Guide• 255
Winding and terminalCoreTank and accessoriesOLTC
Figure 16.1: Transformer fault statistics 
Chap16-254-279 17/06/02 9:58 Page 255
A fault on a transformer winding is controlled inmagnitude by the following factors:
source impedance
neutral earthing impedance
transformer leakage reactance
fault voltage
winding connectionSeveral distinct cases arise and are examined below.
16.2.1 Star-Connected Winding withNeutral Point Earthed through an Impedance
The winding earth fault current depends on the earthingimpedance value and is also proportional to the distanceof the fault from the neutral point, since the faultvoltage will be directly proportional to this distance.For a fault on a transformer secondary winding, thecorresponding primary current will depend on thetransformation ratio between the primary winding andthe short-circuited secondary turns. This also varies withthe position of the fault, so that the fault current in thetransformer primary winding is proportional to thesquare of the fraction of the winding that is short-circuited. The effect is shown in Figure 16.2. Faults inthe lower third of the winding produce very little currentin the primary winding, making fault detection byprimary current measurement difficult.
16.2.2 Star-connected winding withNeutral Point Solidly Earthed
The fault current is controlled mainly by the leakagereactance of the winding, which varies in a complexmanner with the position of the fault. The variable faultpoint voltage is also an important factor, as in the caseof impedance earthing. For faults close to the neutralend of the winding, the reactance is very low, and resultsin the highest fault currents. The variation of currentwith fault position is shown in Figure 16.3.For secondary winding faults, the primary winding faultcurrent is determined by the variable transformationratio; as the secondary fault current magnitude stayshigh throughout the winding, the primary fault current islarge for most points along the winding.
16.2.3 Delta-connected Winding
No part of a delta-connected winding operates with avoltage to earth of less than 50% of the phase voltage.The range of fault current magnitude is therefore lessthan for a star winding. The actual value of fault currentwill still depend on the method of system earthing; itshould also be remembered that the impedance of adelta winding is particularly high to fault currentsflowing to a centrally placed fault on one leg. Theimpedance can be expected to be between 25% and50%, based on the transformer rating, regardless of thenormal balanced through-current impedance. As theprefault voltage to earth at this point is half the normalphase voltage, the earth fault current may be no morethan the rated current, or even less than this value if thesource or system earthing impedance is appreciable. Thecurrent will flow to the fault from each side through thetwo half windings, and will be divided between two
    T   r   a   n   s    f    o   r   m   e   r   a   n    d    T   r   a   n   s    f    o   r   m   e   r  -    F   e   e    d   e   r    P   r   o    t   e   c    t    i   o   n
 Network Protection & Automation Guide• 256
5201004030 50601000701002015
   C  u  r  r  e  n   t   (  p  e  r  u  n   i   t   )
Distance of fault from neutral (percentage of winding)Primary currentFault current
Figure 16.3 Earth fault current in solidly earthed star winding Figure 16.2 Earth fault current in resistance-earthed star winding 
Fault current
(percentage of winding)
   P  e  r  c  e  n   t  a  g  e  o   f  r  e  s  p  e  c   t   i  v  e  m  a  x   i  m  u  m  s   i  n  g   l  e  -  p   h  a  s  e  e  a  r   t   h   f  a  u   l   t  c  u  r  r  e  n   t
Chap16-254-279 17/06/02 9:58 Page 256

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