16.2 WINDING FAULTS
A fault on a transformer winding is controlled inmagnitude by the following factors:
neutral earthing impedance
transformer leakage reactance
winding connectionSeveral distinct cases arise and are examined below.
16.2.1 Star-Connected Winding withNeutral Point Earthed through an Impedance
The winding earth fault current depends on the earthingimpedance value and is also proportional to the distanceof the fault from the neutral point, since the faultvoltage will be directly proportional to this distance.For a fault on a transformer secondary winding, thecorresponding primary current will depend on thetransformation ratio between the primary winding andthe short-circuited secondary turns. This also varies withthe position of the fault, so that the fault current in thetransformer primary winding is proportional to thesquare of the fraction of the winding that is short-circuited. The effect is shown in Figure 16.2. Faults inthe lower third of the winding produce very little currentin the primary winding, making fault detection byprimary current measurement difficult.
16.2.2 Star-connected winding withNeutral Point Solidly Earthed
The fault current is controlled mainly by the leakagereactance of the winding, which varies in a complexmanner with the position of the fault. The variable faultpoint voltage is also an important factor, as in the caseof impedance earthing. For faults close to the neutralend of the winding, the reactance is very low, and resultsin the highest fault currents. The variation of currentwith fault position is shown in Figure 16.3.For secondary winding faults, the primary winding faultcurrent is determined by the variable transformationratio; as the secondary fault current magnitude stayshigh throughout the winding, the primary fault current islarge for most points along the winding.
16.2.3 Delta-connected Winding
No part of a delta-connected winding operates with avoltage to earth of less than 50% of the phase voltage.The range of fault current magnitude is therefore lessthan for a star winding. The actual value of fault currentwill still depend on the method of system earthing; itshould also be remembered that the impedance of adelta winding is particularly high to fault currentsflowing to a centrally placed fault on one leg. Theimpedance can be expected to be between 25% and50%, based on the transformer rating, regardless of thenormal balanced through-current impedance. As theprefault voltage to earth at this point is half the normalphase voltage, the earth fault current may be no morethan the rated current, or even less than this value if thesource or system earthing impedance is appreciable. Thecurrent will flow to the fault from each side through thetwo half windings, and will be divided between two
T r a n s f o r m e r a n d T r a n s f o r m e r - F e e d e r P r o t e c t i o n
Network Protection & Automation Guide• 256•
C u r r e n t ( p e r u n i t )
Distance of fault from neutral (percentage of winding)Primary currentFault current
Figure 16.3 Earth fault current in solidly earthed star winding Figure 16.2 Earth fault current in resistance-earthed star winding
(percentage of winding)
P e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p e c t i v e m a x i m u m s i n g l e - p h a s e e a r t h f a u l t c u r r e n t