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17-Generator and Generator Transf Prot

17-Generator and Generator Transf Prot



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Published by: Sristick on Feb 25, 2009
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Introduction17.1Generator earthing17.2Stator winding faults17.3Stator winding protection17.4Differential protection of direct-connected generators17.5Differential protection of generatortransformer units17.6Overcurrent protection17.7Stator earth fault protection17.8Overvoltage protection17.9Undervoltage protection17.10Low forward power/reversepower protection17.11Unbalanced loading17.12Protection against inadvertent energisation17.13Under/Overfrequency/Overfluxing protection17.14Rotor faults17.15Loss of excitation protection17.16Pole slipping protection17.17Overheating17.18Mechanical faults17.19Complete generator protection schemes17.20Embedded generation17.21Examples of generator protection settings17.22
Generator and Generator Transformer Protection
Chap17-280-315 17/06/02 10:43 Page 280
The core of an electric power system is the generation.With the exception of emerging fuel cell and solar-celltechnology for power systems, the conversion of thefundamental energy into its electrical equivalentnormally requires a 'prime mover' to develop mechanicalpower as an intermediate stage.The nature of this machine depends upon the source of energy and in turn this has some bearing on the designof the generator. Generators based on steam, gas, wateror wind turbines, and reciprocating combustion enginesare all in use. Electrical ratings extend from a fewhundred kVA (or even less) for reciprocating engine andrenewable energy sets, up to steam turbine setsexceeding 1200MVA.Small and medium sized sets may be directly connectedto a power distribution system. A larger set may beassociated with an individual transformer, throughwhich it is coupled to the EHV primary transmissionsystem.Switchgear may or may not be provided between thegenerator and transformer. In some cases, operationaland economic advantages can be attained by providinga generator circuit breaker in addition to a high voltagecircuit breaker, but special demands will be placed onthe generator circuit breaker for interruption of generator fault current waveforms that do not have anearly zero crossing.A unit transformer may be tapped off theinterconnection between generator and transformer forthe supply of power to auxiliary plant, as shown inFigure 17.1. The unit transformer could be of the orderof 10% of the unit rating for a large fossil-fuelled steamset with additional flue-gas desulphurisation plant, butit may only be of the order of 1% of unit rating for ahydro set.
Generator and Generator-Transformer Protection
 Network Protection & Automation Guide• 281
Chap17-280-315 17/06/02 10:44 Page 281
Industrial or commercial plants with a requirement forsteam/hot water now often include generating plantutilising or producing steam to improve overalleconomics, as a Combined Heat and Power (CHP)scheme. The plant will typically have a connection to thepublic Utility distribution system, and such generation isreferred to as ‘embedded’ generation. The generatingplant may be capable of export of surplus power, orsimply reduce the import of power from the Utility. Thisis shown in Figure 17.2.A modern generating unit is a complex systemcomprising the generator stator winding, associatedtransformer and unit transformer (if present), the rotorwith its field winding and excitation system, and theprime mover with its associated auxiliaries. Faults of many kinds can occur within this system for whichdiverse forms of electrical and mechanical protection arerequired. The amount of protection applied will begoverned by economic considerations, taking intoaccount the value of the machine, and the value of itsoutput to the plant owner.The following problems require consideration from thepoint of view of applying protection:
stator electrical faults
unbalanced loading
inadvertent energisation
rotor electrical faults
loss of excitation
loss of synchronism
failure of prime mover
lubrication oil failure
rotor distortion
difference in expansion between rotating andstationary parts
excessive vibration
core lamination faults
The neutral point of a generator is usually earthed tofacilitate protection of the stator winding and associatedsystem. Earthing also prevents damaging transientovervoltages in the event of an arcing earth fault orferroresonance.For HV generators, impedance is usually inserted in thestator earthing connection to limit the magnitude of earth fault current. There is a wide variation in the earthfault current chosen, common values being:
rated current
200A-400A (low impedance earthing)
10A-20A (high impedance earthing)The main methods of impedance-earthing a generatorare shown in Figure 17.3. Low values of earth faultcurrent may limit the damage caused from a fault, butthey simultaneously make detection of a fault towardsthe stator winding star point more difficult. Except forspecial applications, such as marine, LV generators arenormally solidly earthed to comply with safetyrequirements. Where a step-up transformer is applied,
    G   e   n   e   r   a    t   o   r   a   n    d    G   e   n   e   r   a    t   o   r  -    T   r   a   n   s    f    o   r   m   e   r    P   r   o    t   e   c    t    i   o   n
 Network Protection & Automation Guide• 282
GeneratorMain transformerHV busbarsUnit transformerAuxiliary
supplies switchboard
Figure 17.1: Generator-transformer unit 
UtilityPCCIndustrial plantmain busbarPlant feeders - totaleman: xMWhen plant generator is running:If y>x, Plant may export to Utility across PCCIf x>y, Plant max demand from Utility is reducedPCC: Point of Common CouplingGeneratorRating: yMW
Figure 17.2: Embedded generation
Chap17-280-315 17/06/02 10:44 Page 282

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