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18-Industrial and Commercial

18-Industrial and Commercial



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Published by: Sristick on Feb 25, 2009
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Introduction18.1Busbar arrangement18.2Discrimination18.3HRC fuses18.4Industrial circuit breakers18.5Protection relays18.6Co-ordination problems18.7Fault current contributionfrom induction motors18.8Automatic changeover systems18.9 Voltage and phase reversal protection18.10Power factor correctionand protection of capacitors18.11Examples18.12References18.13
1 8
 Industrial and Commercia Power System Protection
Chap18-316-335 17/06/02 11:19 Page 316
As industrial and commercial operations processes andplants have become more complex and extensive (Figure18.1), the requirement for improved reliability of electrical power supplies has also increased. Thepotential costs of outage time following a failure of thepower supply to a plant have risen dramatically as well.The introduction of automation techniques into industryand commerce has naturally led to a demand for thedeployment of more power system automation, toimprove reliability and efficiency.The protection and control of industrial power supplysystems must be given careful attention. Many of thetechniques that have been evolved for EHV powersystems may be applied to lower voltage systems also,but typically on a reduced scale. However, industrialsystems have many special problems that havewarranted individual attention and the development of specific solutions.Many industrial plants have their own generationinstalled. Sometimes it is for emergency use only,feeding a limited number of busbars and with limitedcapacity. This arrangement is often adopted to ensuresafe shutdown of process plant and personnel safety. In
 Industrial and Commercial  Power System Protection
 Network Protection & Automation Guide• 317
Figure 18.1: Large modern industrial plant 
Chap18-316-335 17/06/02 11:20 Page 317
other plants, the nature of the process allows productionof a substantial quantity of electricity, perhaps allowingexport of any surplus to the public supply system – ateither at sub-transmission or distribution voltage levels.Plants that run generation in parallel with the publicsupply distribution network are often referred to as co-generation or embedded generation. Special protectionarrangements may be demanded for the point of connection between the private and public Utility plant(see Chapter 17 for further details).Industrial systems typically comprise numerous cablefeeders and transformers. Chapter 16 covers theprotection of transformers and Chapters 9/10 theprotection of feeders.
The arrangement of the busbar system is obviously veryimportant, and it can be quite complex for some verylarge industrial systems. However, in most systems asingle busbar divided into sections by a bus-sectioncircuit breaker is common, as illustrated in Figure 18.2.Main and standby drives for a particular item of processequipment will be fed from different sections of theswitchboard, or sometimes from different switchboards.The main power system design criterion is that singleoutages on the electrical network within the plant willnot cause loss of both the main and standby drivessimultaneously. Considering a medium sized industrialsupply system, illustrated in Figure 18.3, in more detail,it will be seen that not only are duplicate supplies andtransformers used, but also certain important loads aresegregated and fed from ‘Essential Services Board(s)’(also known as ‘Emergency’ boards), distributedthroughout the plant. This enables maximum utilisationof the standby generator facility. A standby generator isusually of the turbo-charged diesel-driven type. Ondetection of loss of incoming supply at any switchboardwith an emergency section, the generator isautomatically started. The appropriate circuit breakerswill close once the generating set is up to speed andrated voltage to restore supply to the Essential Servicessections of the switchboards affected, provided that thenormal incoming supply is absent - for a typical dieselgenerator set, the emergency supply would be availablewithin 10-20 seconds from the start sequence commandbeing issued.The Essential Services Boards are used to feed equipmentthat is essential for the safe shut down, limited operationor preservation of the plant and for the safety of personnel.This will cover process drives essential for safe shutdown,venting systems, UPS loads feeding emergency lighting,process control computers, etc. The emergencygenerator may range in size from a single unit rated 20-30kW in a small plant up to several units of 2-10MWrating in a large oil refinery or similar plant. Large
    I   n    d   u   s    t   r    i   a    l   a   n    d    C   o   m   m   e   r   c    i   a    l    P   o   w   e   r    S   y   s    t   e   m     P   r   o    t   e   c    t    i   o   n
 Network Protection & Automation Guide• 318
NCNOBus section C - Essential suppliesEDG - Emergency generatorAANOBNC0.4kV CNCNOBCNONONO0.4kV 6kV 0.4kV 33kV NONOEDG 6kV 110kV NOABABC
- Two out of three interlockBA
Figure 18.3: Typical industrial power system
Transformer21Transformerinterlockmechanical or electricalHV supplyHV supply122 out of 3
Figure 18.2: Typical switchboard configuration for an industrial plant 
Chap18-316-335 17/06/02 11:20 Page 318

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