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19-AC Motor Protection

19-AC Motor Protection

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Published by: Sristick on Feb 25, 2009
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05/10/2014

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Introduction 19.1Modern relay design 19.2Thermal (Overload) protection 19.3Start/Stall protection 19.4Short circuit protection 19.5Earth fault protection 19.6Negative phase sequence protection 19.7Wound rotor inductionmotor protection 19.8RTD temperature detection 19.9Bearing failures19.10Undervoltage protection19.11Loss-of-load protection19.12Additional protectionfor synchronous motors19.13Motor protection examples19.14
19
 A.C.Motor Protection
Chap19-336-351 20/06/02 10:42 Page 336
 
19.1 INTRODUCTION
There are a wide range of a.c. motors and motorcharacteristics in existence, because of the numerousduties for which they are used. All motors needprotection, but fortunately, the more fundamentalproblems affecting the choice of protection areindependent of the type of motor and the type of load towhich it is connected. There are some importantdifferences between the protection of induction motorsand synchronous motors, and these are fully dealt within the appropriate section.Motor characteristics must be carefully considered whenapplying protection; while this may be regarded asstating the obvious, it is emphasised because it appliesmore to motors than to other items of power systemplant. For example, the starting and stallingcurrents/times must be known when applying overloadprotection, and furthermore the thermal withstand of the machine under balanced and unbalanced loadingmust be clearly defined.The conditions for which motor protection is requiredcan be divided into two broad categories: imposedexternal conditions and internal faults. Table 19.1provides details of all likely faults that require protection.
19.2 MODERN RELAY DESIGN
The design of a modern motor protection relay must beadequate to cater for the protection needs of any one of the vast range of motor designs in service, many of thedesigns having no permissible allowance for overloads. Arelay offering comprehensive protection will have thefollowing set of features:
a.
thermal protection
b.
extended start protection
c.
stalling protection
19
 A.C.Motor Protection
 Network Protection & Automation Guide• 337
External FaultsInternal faultsUnbalanced suppliesBearing failuresUndervoltagesWinding faultsSingle phasingOverloadsReverse phase sequence
Table 19.1: Causes of motor failures 
Chap19-336-351 20/06/02 10:42 Page 337
 
d.
number of starts limitation
e.
short circuit protection
f.
earth fault protection
g.
winding RTD measurement/trip
h.
negative sequence current detection
i.
undervoltage protection
 j.
loss-of-load protection
k.
out-of-step protection
l.
loss of supply protection
m.
auxiliary supply supervision(items
k
and
l
apply to synchronous motors only)In addition, relays may offer options such as circuitbreaker condition monitoring as an aid to maintenance.Manufacturers may also offer relays that implement areduced functionality to that given above where lesscomprehensive protection is warranted (e.g. inductionmotors of low rating).The following sections examine each of the possiblefailure modes of a motor and discuss how protection maybe applied to detect that mode.
19.3 THERMAL (OVERLOAD) PROTECTION
The majority of winding failures are either indirectly ordirectly caused by overloading (either prolonged orcyclic), operation on unbalanced supply voltage, or singlephasing, which all lead through excessive heating to thedeterioration of the winding insulation until an electricalfault occurs. The generally accepted rule is thatinsulation life is halved for each 1C rise intemperature above the rated value, modified by thelength of time spent at the higher temperature. As anelectrical machine has a relatively large heat storagecapacity, it follows that infrequent overloads of shortduration may not adversely affect the machine.However, sustained overloads of only a few percent mayresult in premature ageing and insulation failure.Furthermore, the thermal withstand capability of themotor is affected by heating in the winding prior to afault. It is therefore important that the relaycharacteristic takes account of the extremes of zero andfull-load pre-fault current known respectively as the'Cold' and 'Hot' conditions.The variety of motor designs, diverse applications, varietyof possible abnormal operating conditions and resultingmodes of failure result in a complex thermal relationship.A generic mathematical model that is accurate istherefore impossible to create. However, it is possible todevelop an approximate model if it is assumed that themotor is a homogeneous body, creating and dissipatingheat at a rate proportional to temperature rise. This isthe principle behind the ‘thermal replica’ model of amotor used for overload protection.The temperature
at any instant is given by:
=
max 
(
1
-
e
-t/ 
τ
)where:
max 
= final steady state temperature
τ
= heating time constantTemperature rise is proportional to the current squared:where:
R
=current which, if flowing continuously, producestemperature
max 
in the motorTherefore, it can be shown that, for any overload current
, the permissible time
for this current to flow is:In general, the supply to which a motor is connected maycontain both positive and negative sequencecomponents, and both components of current give rise toheating in the motor. Therefore, the thermal replicashould take into account both of these components, atypical equation for the equivalent current being:where
1
= positive sequence current
2
= negative sequence currentand
=negative sequence rotor resistance———————————————————---------—positive sequence rotor resistanceat rated speed. A typical value of 
is 3.Finally, the thermal replica model needs to take intoaccount the fact that the motor will tend to cool downduring periods of light load, and the initial state of themotor. The motor will have a cooling time constant,
τ
,that defines the rate of cooling. Hence, the final thermalmodel can be expressed as:
…Equation 19.1
tkAk
e
=
(
)
(
)
τ
log
22
1
IIK
eq
= +
(
)
1
I
eR
=
()
{ }
τ
log
11
 TKIe
R
=
1
()
τ
19
    A .    C .    M   o    t   o   r    P   r   o    t   e   c    t    i   o   n
 Network Protection & Automation Guide• 338
Chap19-336-351 20/06/02 10:42 Page 338

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