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24-Substation Control and Automation

24-Substation Control and Automation

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Published by: Sristick on Feb 25, 2009
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Introduction24.1Topology and functionality24.2Hardware implementation24.3Communication protocols24.4Substation automation functionality24.5System configuration and testing24.6Examples of substation automation24.7
2 4
Substation Control and Automation
Chap24 exe 20/06/02 15:14 Page 422
 
24.1 INTRODUCTION
The sometimes complex interlocking and sequencecontrol requirements that are to be found in asubstation of any significant size lend themselvesnaturally to the application of automation. Theserequirements can be readily expressed in mathematicallogic (truth tables, boolean algebra, etc.) and this branchof mathematics is well-suited to the application of computers and associated software. Hence, computershave been applied to the control of electrical networksfor many years, and examples of them being applied tosubstation control/automation were in use in the early1970’s. The first applications were naturally in the bulkpower transmission field, as a natural extension of atrend to centralised control rooms for such systems. Thelarge capital investment in such systems and theconsequences of major system disruption made the costof such schemes justifiable. In the last ten years or so,continuing cost pressures on Utilities and advances incomputing power and software have led to theapplication of computers to substation control/automation on a much wider basis.This Chapter outlines the current technology andprovides examples of modern practice in the field.
24.2 TOPOLOGY AND FUNCTIONALITY
The topology of a substation control system is thearchitecture of the computer system used. Thefunctionality of such a system is the complete set of functions that can be implemented in the control system– but note that a particular substation may only utilisea subset of the functionality possible.All computer control systems utilise one of two basictopologies:
a.
centralised
b.
distributedand the basic concepts of each are illustrated in Figure
24
Substation Control and Automation
 Network Protection & Automation Guide• 423
Chap24 exe 20/06/02 15:15 Page 423
 
24.1. Early examples of substation automation used thecentralised concept, due to limitations in technology,both of processor power and communication techniques.Latest examples use a distributed architecture, in that anumber of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED’s) – such asmicroprocessor based relays – may be linked via amultidrop serial link to a local processor. The localprocessor may control one or more bays in a substation.All of the local processors are, in turn, connected to aHuman Machine Interface (or HMI), and possibly also toa local or remote SCADA system for overall networkmonitoring/control.
24.2.1 System Elements
The main system elements in a substation control systemare:
a.
IED’s, implementing a specific function orfunctions on a circuit or busbar in a substation.The most common example of an IED is amicroprocessor based protection relay, but it couldalso be a microprocessor based measurementdevice, interface unit to older relays or control, etc.
b.
Bay Module (or controller). This device willnormally contain all of the software required forthe control and interlocking of a single bay (feeder,etc.) in the substation, and sufficient I/O tointerface to all of the required devices required formeasurement/protection/control of the bay. TheI/O may include digital and analogue I/O (forinterfacing to discrete devices such as CB close/tripcircuits, isolator motors, non-microprocessor basedprotection relays) and communications links (serialor parallel as required) to IED’s
c.
Human Machine Interface (HMI). This is theprincipal user interface and would normally takethe form of a computer. The familiar desktop PC iscommonly used, but specialised computers are alsopossible, while normally unmanned substationsmay dispense with a permanently installed HMIand rely on operations/maintenance staff bringinga portable computer equipped with the appropriatesoftware with them when attendance is required.It is usual to also provide one or more printerslinked to the HMI in order to provide hard-copyrecords of various kinds (Sequence of Eventsrecorder, alarm list, etc.)
d.
A communications bus or busses, linking thevarious devices. In a new substation, all of theelements of the automation system will normallyuse the same bus, or at most two busses,to obtain cost-effectiveness. Where a substationautomation system is being retrofitted to anexisting substation, it may be necessary to useexisting communications busses to communicatewith some existing devices. This can lead to amultiplicity of communications busses within theautomation system
e.
A link to a remote SCADA system. This may beprovided by a dedicated interface unit, be part of the HMI computer or part of an IED. It perhapsmay not be provided at all – though since one of the benefits of substation automation is thecapability of remote control/ monitoring, thiswould be highly unusual. It may only occur duringa staged development of an automation scheme ata time when the bay operations are beingautomated but the substation is still manned, priorto implementing remote control capability
24.2.3 System Requirements
A substation control/automation scheme will normallybe required to possess the following features:
a.
control of all substation electrical equipment froma central point
b.
monitoring of all substation electrical equipmentfrom a central point
c.
interface to remote SCADA system
d.
control of electrical equipment in a bay locally
e.
monitoring of electrical equipment in a bay locally
24
    S   u    b   s    t   a    t    i   o   n    C   o   n    t   r   o    l   a   n    d    A   u    t   o   m   a    t    i   o   n
 Network Protection & Automation Guide• 424
Outstation(b) Distributed topologyControl Centre(a) Centralised topologyOutstationsOutstationOutstationOutstationOutstationOutstationControlcentreControlcentreControlcentre
Figure 24.1: Basic substation automationsystem topologies 
Chap24 exe 20/06/02 15:15 Page 424

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