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اخلاق زیست محیطی

اخلاق زیست محیطی

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Published by iraniran

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Published by: iraniran on Feb 25, 2009
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10/13/2012

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ﻪﻣﺎﻨﻠﺼﻓهرﺎﻤﺷ ،مود لﺎﺳ ،يروﺎّ ﻨﻓ و مﻮﻠﻋ رد قﻼﺧا ييﺎﻫ1و2نﺎﺘﺴﺑﺎﺗ و رﺎﻬﺑ ،86
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هﺪﻨﺴﻳﻮﻧ لﻮﺌﺴﻣ ي
ﻦﻔﻠﺗ2220321-0711،
E-mail: abediac@yahoo.com
 59 
ﺖﻴﻫﺎﻣهﺎﮔﺪﻳد ويﺎﻫقﻼﺧاﺎﺑ ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز  ﺗ ﺄ ﻲﻣﻼﺳا هﺎﮔﺪﻳد ﺮﺑ ﺪﻴﻛ  
ﺮﺘﻛد ﺳوﺮﺳ يﺪﺑﺎﻋ ﺪﻤﺣا ﺘ ﻲﻧﺎ 
1
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،ﺮﺘﻛدهﺎﺷ رﻮﺼﻨﻣﻲﻟو
2
وﺮﺘﻛدﻖﻘﺤﻣ ﻲﻔﻄﺼﻣﺪﻴﺳدﺎﻣاد
3 
1.نﺎﮔﺮﮔ ﻲﻌﻴﺒﻃ ﻊﺑﺎﻨﻣ و يزروﺎﺸﻛ مﻮﻠﻋ هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد يزروﺎﺸﻛ شزﻮﻣآ و ﺞﻳوﺮﺗ رﺎﻳدﺎﺘﺳا  2.هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد يزروﺎﺸﻛ شزﻮﻣآ و ﺞﻳوﺮﺗ رﺎﻴﺸﻧادزاﺮﻴﺷ  3.دﺎﺘﺳاقﻮﻘﺣﻲﻣﻼﺳا ﻪﻔﺴﻠﻓ وﻲﺘﺸﻬﺑ ﺪﻴﻬﺷ هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد
     
ناﺮﺤﺑ ﺖﻣﺎﺧو ،هزوﺮﻣا ﺖﺴﻳز يﺎﻫ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا يﺪﺣ ﺎﺗ ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ تﺎﻴﺣ نﺎﺴﻧا تادﻮﺟﻮﻣ ﺮﻳﺎﺳ و ﺖﺳا ﻪﺘﺧاﺪﻧا هﺮﻃﺎﺨﻣ ﻪﺑ ار ﻲﻛﺎﺧ هﺮﻛ ﺮﺑ   ،ﻞﻴﻟد ﻦﻴﻤﻫ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻌﻴﺒﻃ ﺎﺑ نﺎﺴﻧا ﻞﻣﺎﻌﺗ هﺪﻨﻨﻛ ﻦﻴﻴﻌﺗ يﺮﻈﻧ ﻲﻧﺎﺒﻣ ،قﻼﺧا ﻪﻠﻤﺟ زا ، ﻮﺗ درﻮﻣ ﻪﻗﻼﻋ ﻪﺟ ﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ ﻪﺑ ناﺪﻨﻣ ﻲـﻣ و ﺪـﺷﺎﺑ   ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا ﻪﻳﺮﻈﻧ ﻦﻴﻴﺒﺗ هﺮﻬﺑ و ﺖﻇﺎﻔﺣ تﺎﻳروﺮﺿ زا ،ﺐﺳﺎﻨﻣ ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﻲـﻣ بﻮﺴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ زا يرادﺮﺑ ددﺮـﮔ ﺖﺴـﻳز قﻼـﺧا  ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ،ﺞﻳار راﺮﻗ ﻲﺗاذ شزرا ﻲﻧﺎﺒﻣ زا ﻲﻔﻴﻃ ﺮﺑ ﺪﻧراد نﺎﺴﻧا ﻪﻛ ﺖﺴﻳز و يرﻮﺤﻣ ﻲﻣ ﻞﻴﻜﺸﺗ ار نآ ﺮﺳ ود ،يرﻮﺤﻣ مﻮﺑ د  ﻨﻫ ﺎﻣا ﺪ ، رد  لﺎﺳ ﺮﻴﺧا يﺎﻫ ﺎﺑ نﺎﺴﻧا ﺐﺳﺎﻨﻣ ﻞﻣﺎﻌﺗ ﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ  ﻌﻴﺒﻃ ﻲ هار و ناﺮﺤﺑ ﻞﺣ رد ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز يﺎﻫ ﻪﺑ ﺖﺸﮔزﺎﺑ يﻮﻨﻌﻣ و ﻲﻨﻳد ﻲﻧﺎﺒﻣ  ﻲﻣ ﻮﺠﺘﺴﺟ دﻮﺷ ﻪﻟﺎﻘﻣ رد ﺎﺗ ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﻲﻌﺳ ﺮﺿﺎﺣ هﺎﮔﺪﻳد يﺎﻫ ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﻲﺳﺎﺳا ﺶﺳﺮﭘ ود ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎﺑ هرﺎـﺑرد قﻼﺧا 
"
ﻲﺗاذ شزرا نﻮﻧﺎﻛ 
"
و 
"
 ﻣ ﻲﻗﻼﺧا ﻞﻤﻋ رﺎﻴﻌ 
"
ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا ﻦﻴﻴﺒﺗ اﺮﭼ ﻪﻛ دﻮﺷ هداد نﺎﺸﻧ و ﺪﻧﻮﺷ ﺢﻳﺮﺸﺗ هﺎﮔﺪـﻳد ﺮﺑ ﻲﻨﺘﺒﻣ اﺪﺧ يرﻮﺤﻣ ، ﻲﻫﺎﮔﺪﻳد ﻊﻣﺎﺟ ﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ زا ﺖﻇﺎﻔﺣ ياﺮﺑ ﺮﺗ ﻲﻣ ﺪﺷﺎﺑ رد ﻪﻣادا ،ﺰﻴﻧ ر ﻪﺋرا ﺎﺑ ﺖﻓﺎﻴﻫ 
دﻮـﺧ مﻮـﺑ ﻲـﺳﺎﻨﺷ ، 
هﺪـﺷ شﻼـﺗ  رﻮﺤﻣ اﺪﺧ يﺎﻨﺒﻣ ﺮﺑ ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا رد ﻲﺘﻓﺎﻴﻫر ﺎﺗ ﺖﺳا ي ددﺮﮔ ﻪﺋارا نﺎﺴﻧا زا مﺎﻬﻟا ﺎﺑ ﻪﻛ ﺪـﻌ ﺑ ﺮـﺑ ﺪـﻴﻛﺎﺗ ﺎـﺑ و مﻼـﺳا ﻲﺳﺎﻨﺷ  ﻲﻣ ﺎﻨﺑ ﺲﻔﻧ ﺖﻧﺎﻴﺻ و ﻲﺳﺎﻨﺷدﻮﺧ يﺎﻨﺒﻣ ﺮﺑ ار ﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ و نﺎﺴﻧا ﺐﺳﺎﻨﻣ ﻞﻣﺎﻌﺗ ،نﺎﺴﻧا ﺲﻔﻧ ﻲﻧﺎﺣور ﺪﻬﻧ  
هژاو ﺪﻴﻠﻛ ﺎﻫ
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قﻼﺧا ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز ، ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز ناﺮﺤﺑ ، اﺪﺧ يرﻮﺤﻣ ، دﻮﺧ  مﻮﺑ ﻲﺳﺎﻨﺷ 
 
 
هزوﺮﻣا، ﻣﻲﻌﻴﺒﻃ ﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤ درﻮﻣﺪﻳﺪﻬﺗ ﺖﺳا،اﺮﻳزﻚـﻤﻛ ﺎﺑ نﺎﺴﻧا ـّ ﻨﻓيروﺎ ، ردﺎﻗﺎﺗ ﺖﺳاردﺢﻄﺳ ﻛ ﺪﻨﻛ ماﺪﻗا ﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ ﺐﻳﺮﺨﺗ ﻪﺑ ،ﻦﻴﻣز هﺮ )1.(زوﺮـﺑ ناﺮﺤﺑيﺎﻫ ﺐﺟﻮﻣ ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳزحﺮﻃﺪﺷ ﺶﺳﺮﭘ ﻦﻳاﺖﺳا هﻂﻴـﺤﻣ ﺎـﻳآ ﻪﻛ  ﻲﻣ ﺖﺴﻳزﺪﻧاﻮﺗ ﻪﻣادانﺎﺴﻧا ﻲﻠﻌﻓ رﺎﺘﻓر؟دروﺎﻴﺑ ماود ار ﺎﻫ آ ﻦﻳا ﺮﺑ زور ﺮﻫ ﻲﻫﺎـﮔ  ﻲﻣ هدوﺰﻓاﻲﻤﻧ ﻪﻛ دﻮﺷداد ﻪﻣادا نﺎﻬﺟ ﻊﺑﺎﻨﻣ فﺮﺼﻣ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺘﺷﺬﮔ ﺪﻨﻧﺎﻤﻫ ناﻮﺗ )2( وﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧﺖﺴﻳز يﺎﻫﺎﻨﮕﻨﺗ يﺎﻫ ﺎﺟ ﻪﻤﻫ رد ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ رﺎﻜﺷآ.ﻪﭼﺮﮔاﻪﺋارا و رﺎﻣآتﺎﻋﻼﻃانﻮﻣاﺮﻴﭘ ﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﻴﻌﺿو،ﺎﻣا ﺖﺳا مزﻻ ـﻛ ﻦﻳا زا ﺶﻴﺑﻪ   تارﺎﺴﺧ هرﺎﺑرد ﻲﻤﻠﻋ تﺎﻋﻼﻃا ﻪﺑهﺪﺷ دراوز ﻪﺑﻦﻴـﻣﺪـﺷﺎﺑ زﺎـﻴﻧﻲﻘﻓاﻮـﺗ ﻪـﺑ ، هرﺎﺑردﻲﮕﻧﻮﮕﭼزﺎﻴﻧ هرﺎﻴﺳ ﻦﻳا ﻪﺑ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ رﺎﺘﻓرﺖﺳا)3.(نﺎﺴـﻧا ،ﻂﻳاﺮﺷ ﻦﻳا رد ﺮﺜﻛاﺪـﺣ ﻪﺑ نﺎﻫاﻮﺧ داﺮﻓا ﻪﻛ ﻲﻣﺎﮕﻨﻫ ﻪﻛ ﺪﻳﻮﮔ ﺦﺳﺎﭘ ﺖﺨﺳ ﺶﺳﺮﭘ ﻦﻳا ﻪﺑ ﺪﻳﺎﺑ
 
يﺪﺑﺎﻋ ﺪﻤﺣا نارﺎﻜﻤﻫ و ﻲﻧﺎﺘﺳوﺮﺳ هﺎﮔﺪﻳد و ﺖﻴﻫﺎﻣ ﻲﻣﻼﺳا هﺎﮔﺪﻳد ﺮﺑ ﺪﻴﻛﺎﺗ ﺎﺑ ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا يﺎﻫ  
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ﻲﻣ ﻪﻧﻮﮕﭼ ﺪﻨﺘﺴﻫ دﻮﺧ دﻮﺳ نﺪﻧﺎﺳرهﺮﻬﺑ زا ناﻮﺗ ﺐـﻳﺮﺨﺗ و ﺪﺣ زا ﺶﻴﺑ يرادﺮﺑ ؟دﺮﻛ يﺮﻴﮔﻮﻠﺟ ﻲﻌﻴﺒﻃ ﻊﺑﺎﻨﻣ)4(.ﺶﻟﺎﭼ ﻊﻗاو رد،دﻮﺟﻮﻣندﺮـﻛ ﻲﮔﺪﻧز ﻪﻧﻮﮕﭼ ﻪﻜﻠﺑ ﺖﺴﻴﻧ ﻦﻴﻣز يور ﺮﺑ،ﺖـﺳا داﺮـﻓا ﻪﺑ ﻲﮕﻧﻮﮕﭼ ﻦﻳا نﺪﻧﻻﻮﺒﻗ)5.(ﻦـﻳا رد  ﻲﻣ ،ﺎﺘﺳارلﺎﺳ رد ﺖﻳﺮﺸﺑ ﻪﺑ ناﺪﻨﻤﺸﻧاد راﺪﺸﻫ ﻪﻴﻧﺎﻴﺑ ﻪﺑ ناﻮﺗ 1992دﺮﻛ هرﺎﺷا ، زا ﺶﻴﺑ نآ رد ﻪﻛ 1000ﺪﻨﻤﺸﻧادزا72رﻮﺸـﻛ ﻪـﻠﻤﺟ زا و105هﺰﻳﺎـﺟ هﺪـﻧﺮﺑ ،ﻞﺑﻮﻧﻪﻣﺎﻧ رﺎﺸﺘﻧا ﺎﺑهﻮﻴـﺷ و قﻼـﺧا ،ﻦﻴـﻣز ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ياﺮﺑ ﻪﻛ ﺪﻧدﻮﻤﻧ مﻼﻋا يا ﺖﺳا مزﻻ يﺪﻳﺪﺟ شﺮﮕﻧ.ﻲﻣ قﻼﺧا ﻦﻳاو دﺰـﻴﮕﻧاﺮﺑ ار ﻲـﻤﻴﻈﻋ ﺖـﻛﺮﺣ ﺪﻳﺎﺑ  ﺖﻣﻮﻜﺣ ،ناﺮﺒﻫرنﺎﺴﻧا و ﺎﻫ ﻲﺑ يﺎﻫ دﺎـﺠﻳا ار ﻪـﻣزﻻ تاﺮﻴﻴﻐﺗ ﻪﻛ دراداو ار ﻞﻴﻣ  ﺪﻨﻨﻛ )6.(ﺖﻴﻤﻫا كرد ﺎﺑ،ﺖﺴـﻳز ﻂﻴـﺤﻣ زا ﺖﻇﺎﻔﺣ رد قﻼﺧاداﺮـﻓاﻒـﻠﺘﺨﻣ  هدﺮﻛ ﻲﻌﺳﺎﺗ ﺪﻧاﻪﻳﺮﻈﻧﺖﻓﺎﻴﻫر و ﺎﻫ  ﻳﺎﻫ ﻲ ﻪـﺋارا ﻲـﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا نﻮﻣاﺮﻴﭘ  ﺪﻨﻫد.ﻲﻣ ﺎﻬﻧآ ﻦﻴﺑ زاﻪﺑ ناﻮﺗ ﺪﻟﻮﭘﻮﺌﻟ
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،نﻮﺘﺴﻟور
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 رﻮﻠﻴﺗ ،
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 تﺎـﻜﻴﻠﻛ ،
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،نﺎـﮕﻳر
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 وﺲﺋﺎﻧ
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،دﺮﻛ هرﺎﺷا.داﺮﻓا ﻦﻳاﺎﺑنﺎﻴﺑﺮﻳﺎـﺳ ﻪـﺑ ﻲـﻗﻼﺧا هﺎـﮕﻳﺎﺟ ﻂﺴـﺑ تروﺮﺿ  ،تادﻮﺟﻮﻣﻼﺧا زا ﻲﻋﻮﻧ ﻪﺑ ماﺪﻛﺮﻫ ﻪﻛ ﺪﻧﺪﻘﺘﻌﻣ ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز قﻲﺧﺮﺑ ،نآ رد  ﻪﻧﻮﮔ زاﺎﻫ ﺎﻳ وﺖﺴﻳز ياﺰﺟاﻞﻛ ﺎﻳ و مﻮﺑﺖﺴﻳزمﻮﺑ،رادرﻮﺧﺮﺑ ﻲﻗﻼﺧا هﺎﮕﻳﺎﺟ زا ﺖﺳا.،لﺎﺜﻣ ياﺮﺑنﺎﮕﻳر،ﻲﻣ دﺎﻬﻨﺸﻴﭘ ار ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا عﻮﻧ نآﻪﻛ ﺪﻫد ﻲﻣار نآ ناﻮﺗ ﺖﺴﻧاد تﺎﻧاﻮﻴﺣ زا ﺖﻳﺎﻤﺣ رد يﻮﻗ ﻲﻌﺿﻮﻣ.،ﻞـﺑﺎﻘﻣ ردﺪـﻟﻮﭘﻮﺌﻟ   ﺋارا ﺎﺑﻪ ،ﻦﻴﻣز قﻼﺧاﻪﺑ ﺪﻘﺘﻌﻣﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا ﻲﻋﻮﻧ،نآ رد ﻪـﻛ ﺖـﺳا رﻮﺤﻣ مﻮﺑ يرﺎﺘﻓرﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ ﺎﺑﻦﻴﻣز ﻲﻳﺎﺒﻳز و تﺎﺒﺛ ،مﺎﺠﺴﻧا ﻆﻔﺣ ﻪﺑ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا ﺖﺳردﺪﻨﻛ ﻚﻤﻛ .شﻼﺗ ﻪﭼﺮﮔارد هﺪﺷ مﺎﺠﻧا يﺎﻫ ﻪـﻳﺮﻈﻧ ﻪـﺋاراﺖـﻓﺎﻴﻫر و ﺎـﻫ يﺎـﻫ  ،ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧاشزرا ﺎﺑ دﻮﺧ يﺎﺟ رد،ﺎﻣا ﺪﻧانﺎـﻬﺟنﺎـﻨﭽﻤﻫ زﺎﻴﻧ ﻣﺪـﻨ  ﻪﻳﺮﻈﻧﺖﺳا ﻪﻄﺑار ﻦﻳا رد ﻊﻣﺎﺟ يا. 
   
ﻲﻔﻴﺻﻮﺗ شور ﺎﺑ ﺮﺿﺎﺣ ﻪﻟﺎﻘﻣ-ﻪـﻛ ﺖـﺳا هﺪـﺷ ﻪـﻴﻬﺗ فﺪـﻫ ﻦـﻳا ﺎـﺑ ﻲـﻠﻴﻠﺤﺗ   هﺎﮔﺪـﻳد ﻦﻳﺮـﺘﻤﻬﻣ ،ﻲـﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴـﻳز قﻼـﺧا تروﺮـﺿ حﺮـﻃ ﺎﺑدﻮـﺟﻮﻣ يﺎـﻫ  حﺮــﻃ ﻦﻤــﺿ و ﺪﻧﻮــﺷ ﻲــﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﻪــﻄﺑار ﻦــﻳا ردﺖــﻴﻤﻫاﻦﻴــﻴﺒﺗ رد نﺎــﻳدا ـﺑ ﺐـﺳﺎﻨﻣ ﻲﺘﻓﺎﻴﻫر ،ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧارﻮـﻈﻨﻣ ﻦـﻳا ياﺮ ﻲﻣﻼـﺳا ﺪـﻳد زا  ددﺮﮔ ﻪﺋارا. 
1- Aldo Leopold2- Holmes Rolston3- Paul Taylor4- Baird Callicott5- Tom Regan6- Arne Naess
اﺮﭼﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا؟ﺖﺳا مزﻻ
،ﻲـﻗﻼﺧا و يﻮـﻨﻌﻣ دﺎـﻌﺑا ،ﻪﻌﺳﻮﺗ لواﺪﺘﻣ ﻒﻳرﺎﻌﺗ رد ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا ﻦﻳا ﺖﻴﻌﻗاو ﻲﻤﻧ راﺮﻗ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ درﻮﻣ ناﺪﻨﭼﺪﻧﺮﻴﮔ )7(وﺎﻳآ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا ﻦﻳا ﺶﺳﺮﭘ ﺎﺑﺖﻟﺎﺧديﺎـﻫ  ﻲﺘﻳﺮﻳﺪﻣﻲﻣناﻮﺗ ﺖﺴﻳز ﻞﻳﺎﺴﻣ هﺪﻬﻋ زازا ﻲﺷﺎﻧ ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ،ﺪﻣآﺮﺑ ﻪﻌﺳﻮﺗ ﻦـﻳا ﺎﻳ  يﻮﻨﻌﻣ ثاﺮﻴﻣ ياﺮﺑ ﺪﻳﺎﺑ ﺰﻴﻧ ﻲﺸﻘﻧ ﻪﻛ زاﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا دﺎﺠﻳا ﻖﻳﺮﻃرد ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ؟ﺖﺴﺟ ﻲﻧﻮﻨﻛ رﻻﻮﻜﺳ يﺎﻴﻧد)8.(ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا ﻦﻳا ﺖﻴﻌﻗاوﻪﺸﻳر زاﻲﺨﻳرﺎـﺗ يﺎـﻫ  ناﺮﺤﺑيﺎﻫ هﺎﮔﺪﻳد ،ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳزﻪﺑ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ ﺎﻣ ﻲﻗﻼﺧا و ﻲﺒﻫﺬﻣ ،ﻲﻔﺴﻠﻓ يﺎﻫ   شزرا ﻲﻨﻌﻳ ﺎﻬﻧآﺪﻳﺎﺑ ،ﺎﻫ  ﻫﺪﻳﺎﺒﻧ و ﺎﻫ ﻲﺑﻮﺧ و ﺎ ﻲﺘﺷز و ﺎﻫ نﺎﻴﻣ ﻪﺑ ﻲﻨﺨﺳ ﺮﺘﻤﻛ ،ﺎﻫ  ﻲﻣﺪﻳآ.ﻪﺑ ﺢﻴﺤﺻ ﻦﺘﺧادﺮﭘ نوﺪﺑ ،ﻪﻛ ﻲﻟﺎﺣ ردﺚﺣﺎﺒﻣ ﻦﻳاﺮﻴﮔاﺮﻓ ردﻞﻜﺷ ﻦﻳﺮﺗ  نآ ﻆـﻔﺣ تروﺮـﺿ و ﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ نﺪﺷ هﺎﺒﺗ زا ﻪﭼ ﺮﻫ ،ﺎﻬﻧآ ﻲﻗﻼﺧا و ﻲﻔﺴﻠﻓدﺮﺑ ﻢﻴﻫاﻮﺨﻧ ﻲﻳﺎﺟ ﻪﺑ هار ،دﻮﺷ ﻪﺘﻔﮔ )9.(ﺖـﻴﻤﻫاقﻼـﺧا ﺖﺧﺎﻨـﺷ و كردﺎـﺗ  ﺐـﻠﻏا ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا يﺪﺣ،ﺖﺴـﻳز ﻂﻴـﺤﻣ نﺎﺼـﺼﺨﺘﻣ زا يرﺎﻴﺴـﺑ و ناﺪﻨﻤﺸـﻧادﻲﻣ ﻲﻗﻼﺧا ﻢﻬﻣ عﻮﺿﻮﻣ ﻚﻳ ار ﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﻇﺎﻔﺣﺪﻨﻧاد)10.(ﺎﻣا،ﻪﻨﻴﻣز رد ﺪﻧاﻮﺘﺑ ﻪﻛ ﻲﻗﻼﺧا عﻮﻧ ﺑﺎ يارو ﻪـﺑ ،ﻲـﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴـﻳز ﻊﻳﺎـﺠﻓ و ثداﻮـﺣ ﺢﻳﺮﺸﺗ  نﺎـﻬﺟ رد تﺎـﻗﻮﻠﺨﻣ هﺎـﮕﻳﺎﺟ زا ار يﺪـﻳﺪﺟ سﺎﺴﺣا و كرد و دور ﻢﺴﻴﺗﺎﻤﮔاﺮﭘ ،ﺪﻫد ﻪﺋاراو دﻮﺒﻤﻛ دراد دﻮﺟ)11.(قﻼﺧا،ﻲﺘﻨﺳ رﻮﻃ ﻪﺑﻪﺑ ـﺑ ﻂـﺑاور ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ ﻦﻴ   ر و داﺮﻓاﻦﻴﺑ ﻂﺑاوﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ و داﺮﻓاو ﺖﺳا ﻪﺘﺧادﺮﭘ ﺐﺣﺎﺻ ﻲﺧﺮﺑ ﺮﻈﻧ ﺮﺑ ﺎﻨﺑ،ناﺮﻈﻧ ﻢﻴﻈﻨﺗ ار نﺎﻫﺎﻴﮔ و تﺎﻧاﻮﻴﺣ ،ﻦﻴﻣز و نﺎﺴﻧا ﻦﻴﺑ ﻪﺒﻧﺎﺟود ﻪﻄﺑار ﻪﻛ ﻲﻗﻼﺧا،ﺪﻨﻛ نﻮﻨﻛ ﺎﺗ ﻪﺘﺷاﺪﻧ دﻮﺟوﺖﺳا.،نﺎﻧآ ﺮﻈﻧ زا ـﻳا ﻪـﺑ قﻼﺧا شﺮﺘﺴﮔ مﻮـﺳ ءﺰـﺟ ﻦ ، ﻲــﻨﻌﻳ ﺎــﺑ نﺎﺴــﻧا ﻪــﻄﺑارﺖﺴــﻳز ﻂﻴــﺤﻣﻲﺗروﺮــﺿ و ﻲــﺑﻼﻘﻧا ﺖــﺻﺮﻓ ﻚــﻳ ، ﺖﺴﻳزﺖﺳا ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ)12.(زﺎﻴﻧ ﻦﻳا ،هزوﺮﻣاﻲﻣ سﺎﺴﺣا ﺮﺘﺸﻴﺑدﻮﺷﻖـﺋﻼﻋ ﻪـﻛ  نﺎﺴﻧا ﺋﻼﻋ ﻞﺑﺎﻘﻣ رداﺮﻳز دﻮﺷ لدﺎﻌﺘﻣ ،تادﻮﺟﻮﻣ ﺮﻳﺎﺳ ﻖ ﻢﻬﻣ ﻪﺘﻜﻧ، ﻧﻮـﮕﭼﻲﮕ  زا ﺖﻇﺎﻔﺣﺐﻴﺳآ ﺮﺑاﺮﺑ رد ﻲﻧﺎﺴﻧاﺮﻴﻏ ﺖﻴﻌﻤﺟيﺎﻫ ﻲﻧﺎﺴﻧاﺖﺳا)13.(ﻦـﻳا زا،ور ﻞـﻴﺒﻗ ﻦـﻳا ﻪـﺑ ﻲﻳﻮﮕﺨـﺳﺎﭘ ياﺮـﺑ ﻲﻳﺎﻨﺒﻣ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا ﻪﺑﻪﻏﺪﻏدﻲﻣ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎﻫ دﻮﺷ.  ﺖﻴﻟﺎﻌﻓ ﻪﻠﻴﺳو ﻪﺑ ﺖﻌﻴﺒﻃ رد هﺪﺷ دﺎﺠﻳا تاﺮﻴﻴﻐﺗ نﺎﺴﻧا يﺎﻫ و ﺪـﻳدﺮﺗ ﻪﺑ ،ﺎﻫ لﺎـﺒﻧد ﻪﺑ و ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﺮﺠﻨﻣ ﺖﻌﻴﺒﻃ ﻪﺑ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ ﻲﻗﻼﺧا ﻊﺿاﻮﻣ ﻲﺑﺎﻳزرا تروﺮﺿ  ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا ،نآ ﺑ ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣﻂﻴـﺤﻣ ﺎﺑ طﺎﺒﺗرا رد ﺎﻫﺪﻳﺎﺒﻧ و ﺎﻫﺪﻳﺎﺑ دﺪﺠﻣ ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ ﺎ  ﻪﺟاﻮﻣ نآ ﻪﺑ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ ﺮﺸﺑ ﺖﻌﻴﻗﻮﻣ ﻲﺑﺎﻳزرا و ﺖﺴﻳزﺪﺷﺖﺳا ه.،ﻊﻗاو ردﻞﻴﻟد ﻪﺑ  هار نﻮﻣاﺮﻴﭘ ﻖﻓاﻮﺗ دﻮﺒﻧﻞـﻣﺎﻌﺗ ﻞﻜـﺷ ﺮـﻴﻴﻐﺗ ﺎـﻳ حﻼـﺻا ياﺮـﺑ ﺪـﻳﺎﺑ ﻪـﻛ ﻲﻳﺎﻫ ﻞﻜﺸﻣﺐـﻠﻏا و نﻮﮔﺎﻧﻮﮔ يﺎﻫدﺎﻬﻨﺸﻴﭘ ،ﺪﻧﻮﺷ لﺎﺒﻧد ،ﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ ﺎﺑ نﺎﺴﻧا زﺎﺳيدﺎﻀــﺘﻣﻦــﻳا ردهرﺎــﺑهﺪــﺷ ﻪــﺋاراﺪــﻧا.ﺐــﻟﺎﻗ رد ﺮﺘﺸــﻴﺑ ﺎﻫدﺎﻬﻨﺸــﻴﭘ ﻦــﻳا 
 
ﻪﻣﺎﻨﻠﺼﻓ ﻼﺧا ي ،يروﺎّ ﻨﻓ و مﻮﻠﻋ رد ق ،مود لﺎﺳ هرﺎﻤﺷ يﺎﻫ 1و 2رﺎﻬﺑ ، نﺎﺘﺴﺑﺎﺗ و 86
 
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ﺖﺴــﻳز قﻼــﺧا ﺎــﻳ ﻲﻋﺎــﻤﺘﺟا رﺎــﺘﻓر ياﺮــﺑ يرﺎــﺠﻨﻫ يﺎــﻫﻮﮕﻟا،ﻲــﻄﻴﺤﻣ مﻮﻬﻔﻣهﺪﺷ يزﺎﺳﺪﻧا)14.(  ﻞﻳﻻد زاﺮﮕﻳدﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا تروﺮﺿ نﺎﻬﺟ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا يﺮﻴﺛﺎﺗ ،ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣﻲﻨﻴﺑ  ﻲﻳﺎﻤﻨﻫار وﺪـﻧراد ﻲـﻌﻤﺟ و يدﺮـﻓ يﺎﻫرﺎﺘﻓر ﺮﺑ ،ﻲﻗﻼﺧا يﺎﻫ )15.(يﺎـﻫروﺎﺑ  نﺎﻬﺟ ﺎﻳ ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳزﺶﻳاﺮـﮔ زا ﻲﻣﺎﻈﻧ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ ،ﻲﻨﻴﺑﺎـﻫ هرﺎـﺑرد ﺎـﻫروﺎﺑ و نﺎﺴــﻧا ﻦﻴــﺑ ﻪــﻄﺑارﻦﻴــﻴﻌﺗ ،ﺖﺴــﻳز ﻂﻴــﺤﻣ وهﺪــﻨﻨﻛ ﺎــﻳ ﻲﺘﻇﺎــﻔﺣ يﺎــﻫرﺎﺘﻓر بﻮﭼرﺎﭼهدﺎﻔﺘـﺳا ﺎﻬﻧآ زا ﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ ﺎﺑ ﻞﻣﺎﻌﺗ مﺎﮕﻨﻫ ﻪﻛ ﺪﻨﺘﺴﻫ ﻲﻌﺟﺮﻣ يﺎﻫ ﻲﻣدﻮﺷ)16.(ﻪﻄﺑار ﻦﻳا ردﻲﻣﺖﻔﮔ ناﻮﺗ ﻪﻛ  ﻜﻓ زﺮﻃﺖـﺳا يﺰـﻴﭼ ﻦﻴﻟوا ﺎﻣ ﺮ   ﻲﻣ ﻂﻴﺤﻣ دراو ﻪﻛ ﻞﻜﺷ ﺎﺑ و دﻮﺷشزرا ﻲﮕﻧﻮﮕﭼ ﻲﻫدﻒـﻠﺘﺨﻣ ياﺰـﺟا يراﺬﮔ  ﺖﺴــﻳزﻲــﻣ ﻦﻴــﻴﻌﺗ ار نآ ﺎــﺑ ﺎــﻣ رﺎــﺘﻓر ﻲﮕﻧﻮــﮕﭼ ،مﻮــﺑﺪــﻨﻛ )17(.عﻮــﻧ ،اﺬــﻟ  رﺎﺘﻓرنآ ﺎـﺑ دﻮﺧ ﻪﻄﺑار زا ﺎﻣ كرد ﻲﮕﻧﻮﮕﭼ ﻪﺑ يدﺎﻳز ﺪﺣ ﺎﺗ ﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ ﺎﺑ ﺎﻣﺖﺳا ﻪﺘﺴﺑاو.ز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ ياﺮﺑ ﻪﻧﻮﮕﭼ ﺎﻣ ﻪﻛ ﻦﻳاهﺪـﻨﻨﻛ ﻦﻴﻴﻌﺗ ،ﻢﻴﻠﺋﺎﻗ شزرا ﺖﺴﻳ   ﻲـﻣ ﻪـﻧﻮﮕﭼ ﻦﻴـﻣز ﺮﺑ ار دﻮﺧ دﺮﻜﻠﻤﻋ و ﺶﻘﻧ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا ﻦﻳاﻪـﺑ ياﺮـﺑ و ﻢﻴـﻨﻴﺑﻲﻣ رﺎﺘﻓر ﻪﻧﻮﮕﭼ ،ناﺮﮕﻳد ﺎﺑ ﻊﺑﺎﻨﻣ ﻦﻳا ندراﺬﮔ كاﺮﺘﺷاﻢﻴﻨﻛ . 
ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا ﻲﻧﺎﺒﻣ 
ﺖﺳا نﺎﺴﻧا ﻞﻤﻋ يﺎﻤﻨﻫار قﻼﺧا ،ﻲﻠﻛ رﻮﻃ ﻪﺑ.نﺎﺴﻧاﺎﻫ هراﻮـﻤﻫ ﻦـﻳا ﺎـﺑ ﺶﺳﺮﭘ هدﻮﺑ وﺮﺑورﺖـﺳا ﺖﺴﻳﺎﺷﺎﻧ يرﺎﺘﻓر ﻪﭼ ؟ﺖﺳا ﺖﺳرد يرﺎﺘﻓر ﻪﭼ ﻪﻛ ﺪﻧا ﻲﻣ ﺰﻴﻧ ار قﻼﺧا ؟ﺖﺴﻴﭼ ﻞﻤﻋ ﻚﻳ ندﻮﺑ هﺎﺒﺘﺷا ﺎﻳ ﻲﺘﺳرد رﺎﻴﻌﻣ وﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ناﻮﺗ ار رﺎـﺘﻓر ﺪـﻳﺎﺑ ﻪـﻛ ﺖﺴـﻧاد ﻲﻟﻮـﺻا و ﻦﻴﻧاﻮـﻗ و هﺎﺒﺘـﺷا و ﺖﺳرد رﺎﺘﻓر ﻲﻔﺴﻠﻓﺪﻨﻛ ﻲﻳﺎﻤﻨﻫار)13.(زا ﺖـﺳرد رﺎـﺘﻓر ﺰـﻴﻴﻤﺗ ياﺮـﺑ ﺎـﻫرﺎﻴﻌﻣ ﻦﻴـﻴﻌﺗ ﺎـﺑ قﻼﺧا ردﺎﻧو ﺎﻫﺪـﻳﺎﺑ لﺎـﻤﻋا ﻖـﻳﺮﻃ زا ﺖﺳرد رﺎﺘﻓر هدوﺪﺤﻣ ندﺮﻛ ﺺﺨﺸﻣ ﺎﺑ و ،ﺖﺳ ﻲـﻣ دودﺮـﻣ ار نﺎﺴﻧا ﻪﺘﺨﻴﺴﮔ مﺎﺠﻟ يدازآ ،ﺎﻫﺪﻳﺎﺒﻧﺪـﻧاد،نآ لﻮـﺻا ﺖـﻳﺎﻋر و ﺖﺳا عﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﻲﮕﭼرﺎﭙﻜﻳ ﻆﻔﺣ ﻦﻣﺎﺿ . ﻲــﻣ ار شزرا زا ﺖــﻌﻴﺒﻃ ندﻮــﺒﻧ ﻲﻟﺎــﺧ شﺮﻳﺬــﭘ قﻼــﺧا زﺎﻏآﺮــﺳ ناﻮــﺗ ﺖﺴﻳزﺖﺴﻧاد ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ.ا ﻦـﻳا ﺮﺑ ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧاﻪـﻛ ﺖـﺳا راﻮﺘـﺳا هﺪـﻳ   نﺎﺴﻧا ﻂﺑاور ﺎﺗ ﺪﺑﺎﻳ شﺮﺘﺴﮔ ﻲﻠﻜﺷ ﻪﺑ ﺪﻳﺎﺑ قﻼﺧاﻞﻣﺎـﺷ ﺰـﻴﻧ ار ﺖـﻌﻴﺒﻃ و ﺎـﻫ دﻮﺷ.هﺪﻋﻪﻛ ﺪﻧروﺎﺑ ﻦﻳا ﺮﺑ ياﻂﺑاور ﻲﺳرﺮﺑﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ ﺎﺑﻞﻳﺎﺴـﻣ ﺐـﻟﺎﻗ رد  ﻲﻣ طﻮﺑﺮﻣ ﺮﺿﺎﺣ ﺮﺼﻋ ﻪﺑ ،ﻲﻗﻼﺧادﻮﺷ)3(ﺖﺴـﻳز قﻼـﺧا زا ﺖﻳﺎﻤﺣ عوﺮﺷ و  ﻲﻣ ار ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣﻪﻫد زا ناﻮﺗ 1960اد يدﻼﻴﻣﺶﺒـﻨﺟ شﺮﻳﺬـﭘ ﺪﺷر ﺎﺑ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺴﻧ ﺖـﺳا هدﻮﺑ هاﺮﻤﻫ ،ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز)4.(ﺖﺴـﻳز قﻼـﺧاﻪﺧﺎـﺷ ،ﻲـﻄﻴﺤﻣزا يا يدﺮﺑرﺎﻛ ﻪﻔﺴﻠﻓ)18(ﻪﻄﻴﺣ زا وﻲﺘﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا ﻲﺳﺎﺳا يﺎﻫ 
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 ﻲﻣ بﻮﺴﺤﻣدﻮـﺷ)19(ﻪﻛ ﻲﻣﻪﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ نﺎﻴﻣ ﺎﺗ ﺪﺷﺎﺑ ردﺎﻗ ﺪﻳﺎﺑهﺪـﻴﭽﻴﭘ نادﺮﮔﺮـﺳ تﺎـﻴﻌﻗاو زا يا  يژﻮﻟﻮﺋﺪﻳا ،ﻲﺑﺮﺠﺗ شزرا و ﺎﻫ  ﻧا يﺎﻫ ﺪﻨﻛ يرواد ،ﻲﻧﺎﺴ )3.(ﻲﻌﺳﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا ،ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣﻪﺋارامﺎﻈﻧ ﻞﻳﻻدﻲﻌﻣﺎﺟ و ﺪﻨﻣﺖـﺳا رﻮـﻈﻨﻣ ﻦﻳا ياﺮﺑﺪـﻳﺎﺑ اﺮـﭼ ﻪـﻛ   نﺎﺴﻧا ﻦﻴﺑ ﻲﻗﻼﺧا ﻂﺑاورو ﺪـﺷﺎﺑ ﻪﺘـﺷاد دﻮـﺟو ﻲـﻌﻴﺒﻃ ﺖﺴـﻳز ﻂﻴـﺤﻣ و ﺎـﻫ ﻲﻣار نآ ناﻮﺗ ،ﺖﺴـﻳز ﻂﻴـﺤﻣ ﻚـﻳ نورد رد هﺎﺒﺘـﺷا و ﺖـﺳرد رﺎـﺘﻓر ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ دﻮﻤﻧ ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ ،ﺺﺨﺸﻣ)15.(ﺮﺑﺎﻨﺑﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا ﻲﻠﺻا ﺶﻘﻧ ،ﻦﻳادﺎﺠﻳا ،ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ دﺎﺣآ رد ﻲﻗﻼﺧا ﻲﻧورد ﻊﻧاﻮﻣ ﺑﺖﺳا ﺖﻌﻴﺒﻃ ﻪﺑ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ رﺎﺘﻓر ياﺮ )12.(  مﺎﻈﻧ ردﺶﺳﺮﭘ ود ﻲﻗﻼﺧا تﺎﻳﺮﻈﻧ و ﺎﻫ دراد دﻮـﺟو ﻢﻬﻣ.ﺎـﻬﻧآزا ﺪـﻨﺗرﺎﺒﻋ )20(:1(و ؟ﺖـﺳا ﺪﻨﻤـﺷزرا ﻲـﺗاذ رﻮـﻃ ﻪـﺑ يﺰﻴﭼ ﻪﭼ2(ﺖـﺳرد ﻞـﻤﻋ
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ﺎـﻳ ﺖﺳردﺎﻧ
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  ﭼ ﻲﻗﻼﺧا ﺮﻈﻧ زا؟ﺖﺴـﻴﭼ ﻲﻗﻼﺧا ﻞﻌﻓ رﺎﻴﻌﻣ و ﺖﺳا ﻲﻠﻤﻋ عﻮﻧ ﻪ رد ،ﻲﺘﻨﺳ قﻼﺧاﻂﻘﻓزا نﺎﺴﻧاﺖﺳا رادرﻮﺧﺮﺑ ﻲﻗﻼﺧا هﺎﮕﻳﺎﺟ.،اﺬﻟرد قﻼﺧا حﺮﻃ  ﺖﺴﻳز ﺚﺣﺎﺒﻣشزرا دﺪـﺠﻣ ﻲـﺳرﺮﺑ ﺪـﻨﻣزﺎﻴﻧ ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣﻞـﺑﺎﻘﻣ رد ﻲﻧﺎﺴـﻧا يﺎـﻫ  زراشﺖﺳا نآ ياﺰﺟا و ﺖﻌﻴﺒﻃ نﺎﻬﺟ يﺎﻫ .ﺚﺣﺎﺒﻣنﻮـﻣاﺮﻴﭘ ﻲﻔﺴﻠﻓ
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هﺎـﮕﻳﺎﺟﻲﻗﻼﺧا
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ﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ،ًﺎﺻﺎﺼﺘﺧاﻞﻣﺎﺷعﻮﺿﻮﻣ ﻦﻳاﺖﺳادراد نﺎـﻜﻣا ﺎـﻳآ ﻪﻛ  ياﺮـﺑ ﻲﺗاذ شزرا دﻮﺟو ﺎﻳآ و ؟ﺪﺷﺎﺑ دﻮﺟﻮﻣ ﻲﻧﺎﺴﻧاﺮﻴﻏ تادﻮﺟﻮﻣ رد ﻲﺗاذ شزرا؟ﺖـﺳا يروﺮﺿ ،ﻲﻌﻴﺒﻃ ﺖﺴﻳز ﻂﻴﺤﻣ زا ﺖﻇﺎﻔﺣ ﻪﻴﺟﻮﺗ )21.(ﻲـﺷزرا ﻪـﻳﺮﻈﻧ ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا رد هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا درﻮﻣعﻮـﻧ ود ﻦﻴﺑ ،
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ﻲـﺗاذ شزرا
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و
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شزرايراﺰﺑا
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ياﺮﺑهﺪـﻧز هدﻮـﺗ ،هﺪﻧز دﺮﻔﻨﻣ تادﻮﺟﻮﻣ مﺎﻤﺗ 
4
 ﺖـﻴﻌﻤﺟ ،ﻪـﻧﻮﮔ ،ﺎـﻫ ،ﺎـﻫ  ﺖﺴﻳزمﻮﺑﻢﺸﭼ ﻲﺘﺣ و ﺎﻫ يﺎﻫزاﺪﻧا
5
 ﻲـﻣ ﻞـﺋﺎﻗ ﺰﻳﺎـﻤﺗ ،كاردا نوﺪﺑدﻮـﺷ)15(.  ﻲﻣ ﺎﻨﻌﻣ ،يراﺰﺑا شزرا ﻞﺑﺎﻘﻣ رد ًﻻﻮﻤﻌﻣ ﻲﺗاذ شزراﺪﺑﺎﻳ .ﻦـﻳا ﻪﺑ يراﺰﺑا شزرا دراد ﺮـﮕﻳد ءﺎﻴـﺷا ياﺮﺑ ﻪﻛ ﻲﺷزرا ﻪﺑ ءﻲﺷ ﻚﻳ شزرا ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا مﻮﻬﻔﻣﻪﺘﺴـﺑاو ﺖﺷاد ﺪﻫاﻮﺨﻧ ﻲﺷزرا ﻪﻧﻮﮔ ﭻﻴﻫ ﻻاو ﺖﺳا.شزرا ،ﻪﻛ ﻲﻟﺎﺣ ردﻦـﻳا ﻪـﺑ ﻲـﺗاذ ﺎـﻳ ﺪـﺷﺎﺑ ﺪﻨﻤﺷزرا يﺮﮕﻳد ءﻲﺷ ياﺮﺑ ﻪﻛ ﻦﻳا نوﺪﺑ ءﻲﺷ ﻚﻳ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا مﻮﻬﻔﻣ ﻲﻓ ،ﺪﺷﺎﺒﻧﺖﺳا شزرا ياراد ﻪﺴﻔﻧ.ﺖـﻌﻴﺒﻃ ﺪـﻧﺪﻘﺘﻌﻣ ﻪـﻛ ﻲﻳﺎـﻬﻧآ ،لﺎـﺜﻣ ياﺮﺑ  نوﺪﺑ ﻪﻛ ﺪﻧراد ﺪﻴﻛﺎﺗ عﻮﺿﻮﻣ ﻦﻳا ﺮﺑ ،ﺖﺳا ﻲﺗاذ شزرا يارادﺎﻳ و نﺎﺴﻧا رﻮﻀﺣهﺮﻬﺑﺖﺳا شزرا ياراد دﻮﺧ يدﻮﺧ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻌﻴﺒﻃ ﻢﻫ زﺎﺑ ،ﺖﻌﻴﺒﻃ زا نﺎﺴﻧا يرادﺮﺑ.
 
1-ﻲﺘﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا
(Bioethics)
ﺖﺴﻳز قﻼﺧا ﻲﺳﺎﺳا ﻪﻄﻴﺣ ود زاو ﻲﻄﻴﺤﻣ ﻲﻜﺷﺰﭘ قﻼﺧا
(Medical Ethics)
ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﻞﻴﻜﺸﺗ)19.( 
2- Right3- Wrong4- Biomass5- Landscapes

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