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Table Of Contents

1.3PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS AND DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
1.4PRELIMINARY DESIGN
1.5DESIGN ANALYSIS AND COMPUTER MODELING
1.6ERROR BUDGETS AND TOLERANCES
1.7EXPERIMENTAL MODELING
1.8FINALIZING THE DESIGN
1.9DESIGN REVIEWS
1.10MANUFACTURING THE INSTRUMENT
1.11EVALUATING THE END PRODUCT
1.12DOCUMENTING THE DESIGN
REFERENCES
2.1INTRODUCTION
2.2PARAMETERS OF CONCERN
2.2.1TEMPERATURE
2.2.2PRESSURE
2.2.4VIBRATION
2.2.5SHOCK
2.2.6HUMIDITY
2.2.7CORROSION
2.2.8CONTAMINATION
2.2.9FUNGUS
2.2.11HIGH-ENERGYRADIATIONANDMICROMETEORITES
2.2.12.1Fundamental Mechanisms
2.2.12.2Surfaces and Mirrors
2.2.12.3Materials and Measurements
2.2.12.4Thin Films
2.3ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING OF OPTICS
3.1INTRODUCTION
3.2MATERIALS FOR REFRACTING OPTICS
3.2.1GENERALCONSIDERATIONS
3.2.2OPTICALGLASS
3.2.3OPTICALPLASTICS
3.2.4OPTICALCRYSTALS
3.2.4.1Alkali and Alkaline Earth Halides
3.2.4.2Glasses and Other Oxides
3.2.4.3Semiconductors
3.2.4.4Chalcogenides
3.2.4.5Coefficients Related to Optical Material Thermal Behavior
3.3MATERIALS FOR REFLECTING OPTICS
3.3.1SMOOTHNESS
3.3.2STABILITY
3.3.3RIGIDITY
3.4MATERIALS FOR MECHANICAL COMPONENTS
3.4.1ALUMINUM
3.4.1.1Alloy 1100
3.4.1.2Alloy 2024
3.4.1.3Alloy 6061
3.4.1.4Alloy 7075
3.4.1.5Alloy 356
3.4.2BERYLLIUM
3.4.3COPPER
3.4.3.1Alloy C10100
3.4.3.2Alloy C17200
3.4.3.3Alloy C360
3.4.3.4Alloy C260
3.4.3.5Glidcop™
3.4.5MAGNESIUM
3.4.6CARBONSTEEL
3.4.7CORROSION-RESISTANTSTEEL
3.4.8TITANIUM
3.4.9SILICONCARBIDE
3.4.10COMPOSITEMATERIALS
3.5ADHESIVES
3.5.1OPTICALCEMENTS
3.5.1.1Solvent Loss Cements
3.5.1.2Thermoplastic Cements
3.5.1.3Thermosetting Cements
3.5.1.4Photosetting Cements
3.5.2PHYSICALCHARACTERISTICS
3.5.3TRANSMISSIONCHARACTERISTICS
3.5.4CEMENTINGOPTICALSURFACES
3.5.5STRUCTURALADHESIVES
3.8.2.4Fabricating and Curing Composites
4.1INTRODUCTION
4.2CONSIDERATIONS OF CENTERED OPTICS
4.3COST IMPACTS OF FABRICATION TOLERANCES
4.4LENS WEIGHT AND CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION
4.4.1LENSWEIGHTESTIMATION
4.5MOUNTING INDIVIDUAL LOW-PRECISION LENSES
4.5.1SPRINGMOUNTINGS
4.5.2BURNISHEDCELLMOUNTINGS
4.6MOUNTINGS FOR LENSES WITH CURVED RIMS
4.7MOUNTINGS INTERFACING WITH SPHERICAL SURFACES
4.7.1GENERALCONSIDERATIONS
4.7.3CONTINUOUSFLANGEMOUNTING
4.7.5OPTO-MECHANICALINTERFACETYPES
4.7.5.1Sharp Corner Interface
4.7.5.2Tangential Interface
4.7.5.3Toroidal Interface
4.7.5.4Spherical Interface
4.7.5.5Interfaces on Bevels
4.8ELASTOMERIC MOUNTINGS FOR LENSES
4.9MOUNTING LENSES ON FLEXURES
4.10ALIGNMENT OF THE INDIVIDUAL LENS
4.11MOUNTING PLASTIC LENSES
5.1INTRODUCTION
5.2MULTIELEMENT SPACING CONSIDERATIONS
5.3EXAMPLES OF LENS ASSEMBLIES WITH NO MOVING PARTS
5.3.1MILITARYTELESCOPEEYEPIECE
5.3.2MILITARYTELESCOPEOBJECTIVE
5.3.3FIXED-FOCUSRELAYLENS
5.3.8LARGEASTROGRAPHICOBJECTIVE
5.4EXAMPLES OF LENS ASSEMBLIES CONTAINING MOVING PARTS
5.4.1OBJECTIVESDESIGNEDFORMID-IR APPLICATIONS
5.4.2INTERNALLYFOCUSINGPHOTOGRAPHICLENSES
5.4.3BINOCULARFOCUSMECHANISMS
5.4.4ZOOMLENSES
5.5LATHE ASSEMBLY TECHNIQUES
5.6MICROSCOPE OBJECTIVES
5.7ASSEMBLIES USING PLASTIC PARTS
5.8LIQUID COUPLING OF LENSES
5.9CATADIOPTRIC ASSEMBLIES
5.10ALIGNMENT OF MULTI-LENS ASSEMBLIES
5.11ALIGNMENT OF REFLECTING TELESCOPE SYSTEMS
6.1INTRODUCTION
6.2CONVENTIONAL WINDOW MOUNTS
6.3SPECIAL WINDOW MOUNTS
6.4MOUNTS FOR SHELLS AND DOMES
6.5CONFORMAL WINDOWS
7.2.4 TUNNEL DIAGRAMS
7.2.5 TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION
7.3 DESIGNS FOR TYPICAL PRISMS
7.3.1 THE RIGHT-ANGLE PRISM
7.3.2 THE BEAM SPLITTER (OR BEAM COMBINER) CUBE PRISM
7.3.3 THE AMICI PRISM
7.3.4 THE PORRO PRISM
7.3.5 THE ABBE VERSION OF THE PORRO PRISM
7.3.6 THE PORRO ERECTING SYSTEM
7.3.7 THE ABBE ERECTING SYSTEM
7.3.8 THE RHOMBOID PRISM
7.3.9 THE DOVE PRISM
7.3.10 DOUBLE-DOVE PRISM
7.3.11 THE PENTA PRISM
7.3.12 THE ROOF PENTA PRISM
7.3.13 THE AMICI/PENTA AND RIGHT-ANGLE/ROOF PENTA ERECTING SYSTEMS
7.3.14 THE REVERSION, ABBE TYPE A, AND ABBE TYPE B PRISMS
7.3.15 THE DELTA PRISM
7.3.16 THE PECHAN PRISM
7.3.17 THE SCHMIDT PRISM
7.3.18 THE 45° BAUERNFEIND PRISM
7.3.19 THE FRANKFORD ARSENAL PRISMS NOS. 1 AND 2
7.3.20 THE LEMAN PRISM
7.3.21 AN INTERNALLY REFLECTING AXICON PRISM
7.3.22 THE CUBE-CORNER PRISM
7.3.23 AN OCULAR PRISM FOR A COINCIDENCE RANGEFINDER
7.3.24 A BIOCULAR PRISM SYSTEM
7.3.25 DISPERSING PRISMS
7.3.26 THIN-WEDGE PRISM SYSTEMS
7.3.26.1 The Thin Wedge
7.3.26.2 The Risley Wedge System
7.3.26.3 The Longitudinally Sliding Wedge
7.3.26.4 A Focus-Adjusting Wedge System
7.3.27 ANAMORPHIC PRISM SYSTEMS
7.4 KINEMATIC AND SEMIKINEMATIC PRISM MOUNTING PRINCIPLES
7.5 MOUNTING PRISMS BY CLAMPING
7.5.1 PRISM MOUNTS: SEMIKINEMATIC
7.5.2 PRISM MOUNTS: NONKINEMATIC
7.6 MOUNTING PRISMS BY BONDING
7.7 FLEXURE MOUNTS FOR PRISMS
8.1INTRODUCTION
8.2GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
8.2.1MIRRORAPPLICATIONS
8.2.2GEOMETRICCONFIGURATIONS
8.2.3REFLECTEDIMAGEORIENTATION
8.2.5MIRRORCOATINGS
8.3SEMIKINEMATIC MOUNTINGS FOR SMALL MIRRORS
8.4MOUNTING MIRRORS BY BONDING
8.5FLEXURE MOUNTS FOR MIRRORS
8.6MULTIPLE-MIRROR MOUNTS
8.7MOUNTINGS FOR GRATINGS
8.8PELLICLE DESIGN AND MOUNTING
9.1INTRODUCTION
9.2MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS
9.3CORE CELL CONFIGURATIONS
9.4CAST RIBBED SUBSTRATES
9.5SLOTTED-STRUT AND FUSED MONOLITHIC SUBSTRATES
9.6FRIT-BONDED SUBSTRATES
9.7LOW-TEMPERATURE BONDED SUBSTRATES
9.8MACHINED-CORE SUBSTRATES
9.9CONTOURED-BACK SOLID MIRROR CONFIGURATIONS
9.10THIN FACE SHEET MIRROR CONFIGURATIONS
9.11SCALING RELATIONSHIPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MIRRORS
10.1INTRODUCTION
10.2GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF GRAVITY EFFECTS
10.3V-TYPE MOUNTS
10.4MULTIPOINT EDGE SUPPORTS
10.5THE IDEAL RADIAL MOUNT
10.6MERCURY TUBE MOUNTS
10.7STRAP AND ROLLER-CHAIN MOUNTS
10.8PUSH–PULL MOUNTS
10.9COMPARISON OF DYNAMIC RELAXATION AND FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
11.1INTRODUCTION
11.2RING MOUNTS
11.3AIR BAG (BLADDER) MOUNTS
11.4MULTIPLE-POINT SUPPORTS
11.4.1THREE-POINTMOUNTS
11.4.2HINDLEMOUNTS
11.4.3COUNTERWEIGHTEDMOUNTS
11.4.4PNEUMATIC/HYDRAULICMOUNTS
11.5METROLOGY MOUNTS
11.5.1A 36-POINTPNEUMATICMETROLOGYMOUNT
11.5.2A 27-POINTHYDRAULICMETROLOGYMOUNT
12.1INTRODUCTION
12.2MECHANICAL FLOTATION MOUNTS
12.3HYDRAULIC/PNEUMATIC MOUNTS
12.3.1HISTORICALBACKGROUND
12.3.2GEMINITELESCOPES
12.4CENTER-MOUNTED MIRRORS
12.5MOUNTS FOR DOUBLE-ARCH MIRRORS
12.6BIPOD MIRROR MOUNTS
12.7THIN FACE SHEET MIRROR MOUNTS
12.7.1GENERALCONSIDERATIONS
12.7.2THEKECKTELESCOPES
12.7.3ADAPTIVEMIRRORSYSTEMS
12.7.3.1The Advanced Electro-Optical System Telescope
12.7.3.2The MMT Adaptive Secondary Mirror
12.8MOUNTS FOR LARGE SPACE-BORNE MIRRORS
13.1INTRODUCTION
13.2GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF METAL MIRRORS
13.3ALUMINUM MIRRORS
13.3.1CASTALUMINUMMIRRORS
13.3.2MACHINEDALUMINUMMIRRORS
13.4BERYLLIUM MIRRORS
13.5MIRRORS MADE FROM OTHER METALS
13.5.1COPPERMIRRORS
13.5.2MOLYBDENUMMIRRORS
13.5.3SILICONCARBIDEMIRRORS
13.6MIRRORS WITH FOAM AND METAL MATRIX CORES
13.7PLATING OF METAL MIRRORS
13.8SINGLE-POINT DIAMOND TURNING OF METAL MIRRORS
13.9CONVENTIONAL MOUNTINGS FOR METAL MIRRORS
13.10INTEGRAL MOUNTINGS FOR METAL MIRRORS
13.11FLEXURE MOUNTINGS FOR LARGER METAL MIRRORS
13.12INTERFACING MULTIPLE SPDT COMPONENTS TO FACILITATE ASSEMBLY AND ALIGNMENT
14.1INTRODUCTION
14.2RIGID HOUSING CONFIGURATIONS
14.2.1MILITARYBINOCULARS
14.2.2COMMERCIALBINOCULARS
14.2.3TANKPERISCOPES
14.2.4SPACE-BORNESPECTRO-RADIOMETERCAMERAS
14.3MODULAR DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND EXAMPLES
14.3.1INJECTION-MOLDEDPLASTICMODULES
14.3.2A MODULARMILITARYBINOCULAR
14.3.4A DUAL-COLLIMATORMODULE
14.4A STRUCTURAL DESIGN FOR HIGH SHOCK LOADING
14.5ATHERMALIZED STRUCTURAL DESIGNS
14.5.1.1The IRAS Telescope
14.5.1.2The Spitzer Space Telescope
14.5.3INSTRUMENTSATHERMALIZEDWITHMETERINGSRUCTURES
14.5.3.1The Orbiting Astronomical Observatory
14.5.3.2The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite
14.5.3.3The Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph
14.5.3.6Athermalization of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer
14.6.GEOMETRIES FOR TELESCOPE TUBE STRUCTURES
14.6.1THESERRURIERTRUSS
14.6.4THECHANDRATELESCOPE
14.6.6DETERMINATESPACEFRAMES
15.1INTRODUCTION
15.2FAILURE PREDICTIONS FOR OPTICS
15.2.1General Considerations
15.2.2Testing to Determine Component Strength
15.2.3The Weibull Failure Prediction Method
15.2.4The Safety Factor
15.2.5Time-to-Failure Prediction
15.2.6Rule-of-Thumb Stress Tolerances
15.3STRESS GENERATION AT OPTO-MECHANICAL INTERFACES
15.3.1Point Contacts
15.3.2Short Line Contacts
15.3.3Annular Contacts
15.3.3.1The Sharp Corner Interface
15.3.3.2The Tangential Interface
15.3.3.3The Toroidal Interface
15.3.3.4The Spherical Interface
15.3.3.5The Flat Bevel Interface
15.4PARAMETRIC COMPARISONS OF ANNULAR INTERFACE TYPES
15.5BENDING EFFECTS DUE TO OFFSET ANNULAR CONTACTS
15.5.1Bending Stress in the Optical Component
15.5.2Change in Surface Sagittal Depth of a Bent Optic
15.6EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE CHANGES
15.6.1Radial Effects at Reduced Temperature
15.6.1.1Radial Stress in the Optic
15.6.1.2Tangential (Hoop) Stress in the Mount Wall
15.6.2Radial Effects at Increased Temperature
15.6.3Changes in Axial Preload Caused by Temperature Changes
15.6.3.1General Considerations
15.6.3.2Approximation of K3Considering Bulk Effects Only
15.7EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS
15.7.1Radial Temperature Gradients
15.7.2Axial Temperature Gradients
15.8STRESSES IN CEMENTED AND BONDED OPTICS DUE TO TEMPERATURE CHANGES
UNITS AND THEIR CONVERSION
B.1COLD, HEAT, HUMIDITY TESTING
B.2MECHANICAL STRESS TESTING
B.3SALT MIST TESTING
B.4COLD, LOW AIR PRESSURE TESTING
B.5DUST TESTING
B.6DRIP, RAIN TESTING
B.7HIGH-PRESSURE, LOW-PRESSURE, IMMERSION TESTING
B.8SOLAR RADIATION
B.9COMBINED SINUSOIDAL VIBRATION, DRY HEAT, OR COLD TESTING
B.10MOLD GROWTH TESTING
B.11CORROSION TESTING
B.13DEW, HOARFROST, ICE TESTING
D.1UNITS OF MEASURE AND ABBREVIATIONS USED
D.2PREFIXES
D.3GREEK SYMBOL APPLICATIONS
D.4ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND OTHER TERMS
INDEX
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OptoMechanical Systems Design

OptoMechanical Systems Design

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Published by: Gayathri Yaddanapudi on Mar 02, 2013
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