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CDE Call Influence Through Cyberspace (Released 22 April 2010)

CDE Call Influence Through Cyberspace (Released 22 April 2010)

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Published by: IdeaTrack on Mar 02, 2013
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Understanding and Influencing in Cyberspace
Centre for Defence Enterprise call for proposals and expressions of interest Release Date: 22 
April 2010 
Second LifeTwitteWorld of Warcraft YouTubeFacebookAPP storeSe
cond LifeTwitteWorld of Warcraft YouTubeFacebookAPP store
 This call for research aims to explore how human and social behaviour is manifest inthe virtual worlds of cyberspace and how this behaviour might be shaped or influenced.
Nothing herein shall be relied upon as constituting a contract, agreement or representation that any contract shall be offered inaccordance herewith. The MoD reserves the right, subject to the appropriate procurement regulations, to change without notice thebasis of, or the procedures for, or to terminate the process at any time. Under no circumstances shall MoD incur any liability in respectthereof.
Cyber & Influence S&T Centrecandicdtenquiries@dstl.gov.uk 
Understanding & Influencing in Cyberspace
1. Context
The UK Government spends over £30Bn per year on Defence. The MOD invests over half of thisbudget on equipment, works and miscellaneous stores and services ranging from, for example,tanks, ships and aircraft through to tools, clothing and window cleaning.The Defence Industrial Strategy
 A recent study
describes MOD’s future military capability requirements and theinteraction between MOD and the defence supplier base. This strategy stresses the value MODplaces on engagement with a wider supplier base, including the academic sector and smallcompanies, to stimulate innovation and exploit technological advance for the benefit of UKdefence.
 Advice / Assessments
Single SourceResearch
Single SourceResearch andTechnology
Risk ReductionDemonstrators
Equipment andSupport for Operations
High Risk
High Impact
Seed CornResearch
C o u n t e r T e r r o r i s m
Competition of IdeasGrand Challenge
ChallengeWorkshopsConsortia basedResearch andTechnology
Risk ReductionDemonstrators
Joint FundedResearch andTechnologyEquipment andSupport for Operations
High Risk
High Impact
Development of Solutions inOperations
found that research and development (R&D) accounted for approximately £2.6Bnof the defence budget. Approximately £2.1Bn of this is part of the equipment and supportprogramme. Approximately £500M is centrally managed as a Science, Innovation and Technology(SIT) programme. Figure 1 illustrates the transition from
and on to
, and lists initiatives in place to support each stage.
Figure 1 - R&D Lifecycle Model ("4 box model")
 The Defence Industrial Strategy and MOD Innovation Strategy
 emphasises the need for flexibility,agility and responsiveness in developing new technology and concepts to meet emergingcapability needs. The Defence Technology Plan, which was announced in Autumn 2007 andpublicly launched in February 2009, outlines the priorities and direction that MoD requires aresearch programme to deliver. This call forms part of the Human & Social Influence ResearchProgramme of the Cyber & Influence S&T Centre and will complement existing research activitiesidentified within the Defence Technology Plan (DTP) under the Cyber & Influence RDO.
Defence White Paper: Defence Industrial Strategy Cm6697, published December 2005
Maximising Defence Capability Through R&D, published October 2007
Ministry of Defence Innovation Strategy, published December 2007
IndividualIndividualPersonalityPersonalityCultureCultureTeam / GroupInformationInformationEnvironmentEnvironmentContextContext
IndividualIndividualPersonalityPersonalityCultureCultureTeam / GroupInformationInformationEnvironmentEnvironmentContextContext
2. Problem space
Influence Activities
“…affect the character or behaviour of an individual, group or organisation: they realisecognitive effects. Whilst activities in the physical domain will undoubtedly have such effects….the focus of Information Activities is in the information domain.”Cyberspace, as part of the information dimension,
is as much a part of the contemporary operatingenvironment as the land, sea or air. Moreover, as identified by the National Security Strategy (NSS), it is ‘themost important new domain in national security of recent years’.
Its existence is undeniable, and has beenfor a period of decades, yet it remains a poorly understood domain which is all-too-often seen as thepreserve of computer specialists.
Whilst Defence activities are known primarily for their physical effect upon the real world, there isincreasing interest in their ability to create effects, by means of military influence activities, in thecognitive domain, often described in terms of the ‘battle for hearts and minds’. Whilst capabilities toanalyse and understand human behaviour and attitudes do exist, these have focused on people inthe physical world: there has been relatively little emphasis on how behaviour and attitudes arerevealed, and can be shaped by, on-line activity within the ‘new media’. Cyberspace, socialnetworking and virtual worlds have created new environments within which people can inteact andtherefore represent new and challenging areas of research for human and social scientists
 and asa domain within which Influence can be exerted.Being able to affect human & social behaviour demands an understanding of how thisbehaviour is shaped, not simply by technologybut by multiple factors - personality, motivation,attitudes, social identity, organisational andsocial norms and cultural practices as well asthe wider context within which it occurs. Analysis of these factors enables the planningand evaluation (measuring effect) of influenceefforts and potentially facilitates the forecastingof human and social behaviour in response tointerventions of all types.In the first instance, the focus is on currentmanifestations of cyber or social media. Thusthe creation of new virtual worlds, immersiontechnologies and devices are seen as being of secondary importance to the underpinninghuman & social science issues.This document provides an overview of some key human & social science challenges. It should bestressed that these are provided to shape and stimulate thought and should not constrain potentialresearch ideas or approaches, nor should they be seen as exhaustive. Individual proposals shouldnot seek to tackle all facets outlined here but should rather seek to make a contribution in aspecific domain of interest.
Joint Doctrine Note 1/07 
JDP 0-01,
British Defence Doctrine (3
, (UK: MoD, 2008), para.240.
National Security Strategy: Annual Update 2009
, (UK: Cabinet Office), Jun 09, para.46.
It is assumed that a wide range of human and social science disciplines are needed: psychology, sociology, anthropology, etc.

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